sabato 31 dicembre 2016

happy new year!

BRESCIA NEUROLOGY UNIT RESULTS: TBK1 Mutation Spectrum in an Extended European Patient Cohort With Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

We investigated the mutation spectrum of the TANK-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) gene and its associated phenotypic spectrum by exonic resequencing of TBK1 in a cohort of 2538 patients with FTD, ALS or FTD plus ALS, ascertained within the European Early-Onset Dementia Consortium. We assessed pathogenicity of predicted protein truncating mutations by measuring loss of RNA expression. Functional effect of in-frame amino acid deletions and missense mutations was further explored in vivo on protein level and in vitro by an NFκB-induced luciferase reporter assay and measuring phosphorylated TBK1. The protein truncating mutations led to loss of transcript through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. For the in-frame amino acid deletions, we demonstrated loss of TBK1 or phosphorylated TBK1 protein. An important fraction of the missense mutations compromised NFκB activation indicating that at least some functions of TBK1 are lost. Although missense mutations were also present in controls, over three times more mutations affecting TBK1 functioning were found in the mutation fraction observed in patients only, suggestive of high-risk alleles (p = 0.03). Total mutation frequency for confirmed TBK1 LoF mutations in the European cohort was 0.7%, with frequencies in the clinical subgroups of 0.4% in FTD, 1.3% in ALS and 3.6% in FTD-ALS. This article is protected by copyright.

Hum Mutat 2016

Ocrelizumab versus Interferon Beta-1a in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis


B cells influence the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively depletes CD20+ B cells.


In two identical phase 3 trials, we randomly assigned 821 and 835 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis to receive intravenous ocrelizumab at a dose of 600 mg every 24 weeks or subcutaneous interferon beta-1a at a dose of 44 μg three times weekly for 96 weeks. The primary end point was the annualized relapse rate.


The annualized relapse rate was lower with ocrelizumab than with interferon beta-1a in trial 1 (0.16 vs. 0.29; 46% lower rate with ocrelizumab; P<0.001) and in trial 2 (0.16 vs. 0.29; 47% lower rate; P<0.001). In prespecified pooled analyses, the percentage of patients with disability progression confirmed at 12 weeks was significantly lower with ocrelizumab than with interferon beta-1a (9.1% vs. 13.6%; hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.81; P<0.001), as was the percentage of patients with disability progression confirmed at 24 weeks (6.9% vs. 10.5%; hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.84; P=0.003). The mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions per T1-weighted magnetic resonance scan was 0.02 with ocrelizumab versus 0.29 with interferon beta-1a in trial 1 (94% lower number of lesions with ocrelizumab, P<0.001) and 0.02 versus 0.42 in trial 2 (95% lower number of lesions, P<0.001). The change in the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score (a composite measure of walking speed, upper-limb movements, and cognition; for this z score, negative values indicate worsening and positive values indicate improvement) significantly favored ocrelizumab over interferon beta-1a in trial 2 (0.28 vs. 0.17, P=0.004) but not in trial 1 (0.21 vs. 0.17, P=0.33). Infusion-related reactions occurred in 34.3% of the patients treated with ocrelizumab. Serious infection occurred in 1.3% of the patients treated with ocrelizumab and in 2.9% of those treated with interferon beta-1a. Neoplasms occurred in 0.5% of the patients treated with ocrelizumab and in 0.2% of those treated with interferon beta-1a.


Among patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, ocrelizumab was associated with lower rates of disease activity and progression than interferon beta-1a over a period of 96 weeks. Larger and longer studies of the safety of ocrelizumab are required. (Funded by F. Hoffmann–La Roche; OPERA I and II numbers, NCT01247324 and NCT01412333, respectively.)

NEJM 2016

Recommendations for the Treatment of Patients With Parkinson Disease During Ramadan

Importance  Every year, Ramadan fasting is practiced by many Muslim individuals. In cases of chronic disease, religious texts allow fasting to be broken. However, many believers still want to fast even at the risk of damaging their health. To our knowledge, there are no published recommendations on the medical management of Parkinson disease (PD) during Ramadan. Effective treatments exist in PD and usually require several daily drug intakes. Apart from worsening symptoms, interrupting PD treatment might lead to a severe withdrawal syndrome.
Observations  Although no specific studies on this topic have led to formal recommendations, we suggest some options for adapting the treatment for patients who fast during Ramadan. The general principle is based on switching the patient’s treatment to an equivalent dosage of a dopamine agonist that can be administered once daily or by transdermal patch. However, such an option is only feasible for patients who require a moderate amount of PD treatment and can tolerate dopamine agonist therapy.
Conclusions and Relevance  Because many patients with PD require regular multiple daily administration of dopamine-replacement medication, the management of Ramadan fasting is not easy. Switching the patient’s treatment to an equivalent dosage of a dopamine agonist that can be administered once daily or by transdermal patch seems to be a reasonable option to consider for patients treated with a low-to-moderate amount of PD medication.

JAMA Neurology 2016

Opicapone as Adjunct to Levodopa Therapy in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Motor Fluctuations A Randomized Clinical Trial

Importance  Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors are an established treatment for end-of-dose motor fluctuations associated with levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Current COMT inhibitors carry a high risk for toxic effects to hepatic cells or show moderate improvement. Opicapone was designed to be effective without the adverse effects.
Objective  To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 25- and 50-mg/d dosages of opicapone compared with placebo as adjunct to levodopa therapy in patients with PD experiencing end-of-dose motor fluctuations.
Design  This phase 3 international, multicenter outpatient study evaluated a 25- and a 50-mg/d dosage of opicapone in a randomized, double-blind, 14- to 15-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial, followed by a 1-year open-label phase during which all patients received active treatment with opicapone. Patients with PD who experienced signs of end-of-dose deterioration and had a mean total awake off-time (state of akinesia or decreased mobility) of at least 1.5 hours, not including morning akinesia, were enrolled. Data were collected from March 18, 2011, through June 25, 2013. Data from the evaluable population were analyzed from July 31, 2013, to July 31, 2014.
Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary efficacy outcome of the double-blind phase was the change from baseline in absolute off-time vs placebo based on patient diaries. The open-label phase focused on maintenance of treatment effect in off-time.
Results  A total of 427 patients (258 men [60.4%] and 169 women [39.6%]; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [8.8] years) were randomized to a 25-mg/d (n = 129) or a 50-mg/d (n = 154) dosage of opicapone or to placebo (n = 144). Of these, 376 patients completed the double-blind phase and entered the open-label phase, of whom 286 completed 1 year of open-label treatment. At the end of the double-blind phase, the least squares mean change (SE) in off-time was −64.5 (14.4) minutes for the placebo group, −101.7 (14.9) minutes for the 25-mg/d opicapone group, and −118.8 (13.8) minutes for the 50-mg/d opicapone group. The adjusted treatment difference vs placebo was significant for the 50-mg/d opicapone group (treatment effect, −54.3 [95% CI, −96.2 to −12.4] minutes; P = .008), but not for the 25-mg/d opicapone group (treatment effect, −37.2 [95% CI, −80.8 to 6.4] minutes; P = .11). The off-time reduction was sustained throughout the open-label phase (−126.3 minutes at 1-year open-label end point). The most common adverse events in the opicapone vs placebo groups were dyskinesia, constipation, and dry mouth. Fifty-one patients (11.9%) discontinued from the study during the double-blind phase.
Conclusions and Relevance  Treatment with a 50-mg once-daily dose of opicapone was associated with a significant reduction in mean daily off-time in levodopa-treated patients with PD and motor fluctuations, and this effect is maintained for at least 1 year. Opicapone was safe and well tolerated

JAMA Neurology 2016

Association of Albumin Levels With Outcome in Intravenous Immunoglobulin–Treated Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Importance  There is an urgent need for biomarkers to monitor treatment efficacy and anticipate outcome in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).
Objective  To assess whether there is an association between serum albumin levels, a widely used and relatively easily measurable biomarker of health and inflammation, and the clinical course and outcome of GBS in patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
Design, Setting, and Participants  We used serum samples derived from a cohort of patients with GBS admitted to hospitals across the Netherlands participating in national GBS studies from May 5, 1986, through August 2, 2000. Serum albumin was measured from January 13 to 20, 2011. Analysis was performed from February 25, 2013, to September 6, 2016. All patients fulfilled the criteria for GBS and had severe disease (defined as not being able to walk unaided >10 m). Patients misdiagnosed as having GBS were retrospectively excluded from the study. Serum samples were obtained before and after IVIG treatment at 4 standardized time points from 174 patients. Albumin levels were determined by routine diagnostic turbidimetry and related to demographics and clinical course during a follow-up of 6 months.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Serum albumin concentration was determined before and after treatment with IVIG and related to clinical outcome: muscle weakness (measured by Medical Research Council sum score), respiratory failure (measured by requirement and duration of mechanical ventilation), and ability to walk (measured by GBS disability score).
Results  Serum albumin levels were determined in 174 patients with GBS (mean [SD] age, 49.6 [20.1] years; 99 males [56.9%]). Before treatment, the median serum albumin level was 4.2 g/dL (interquartile range, 3.8-4.5 g/dL), with hypoalbuminemia (albumin, <3.5 g/dL) in 20 (12.8%) of 156 patients. Two weeks after commencing treatment with IVIG (2 g/kg), the median serum albumin level decreased to 3.7 g/dL (interquartile range, 3.2-4.1 g/dL) (P < .001), and the number with hypoalbuminemia increased to 60 (34.5%) of 174 (P < .001). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with an increased chance of respiratory failure before (16 [36.4%] of 44, P = .001) or after (29 [54.7%] of 53, P < .001) IVIG treatment, inability to walk unaided (21 [35.0%] of 60 vs 6 [5.3%] of 114, P < .001), and severe muscle weakness at 4 weeks (Medical Research Council sum score, 31.8 vs 52.9, P < .001) and 6 months (Medical Research Council sum score, 49.4 vs 58.4, P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance  Patients with GBS may develop hypoalbuminemia after treatment with IVIG, which is related to a more severe clinical course and a poorer outcome. Further studies are required to confirm that serum albumin can be used as a biomarker to monitor disease activity and treatment response to IVIG in patients with GBS.

JAMA Neurology 2016

Focal temporal pole atrophy and network degeneration in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia

A wealth of neuroimaging research has associated semantic variant primary progressive aphasia with distributed cortical atrophy that is most prominent in the left anterior temporal cortex; however, there is little consensus regarding which region within the anterior temporal cortex is most prominently damaged, which may indicate the putative origin of neurodegeneration. In this study, we localized the most prominent and consistent region of atrophy in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia using cortical thickness analysis in two independent patient samples (n = 16 and 28, respectively) relative to age-matched controls (n = 30). Across both samples the point of maximal atrophy was located in the same region of the left temporal pole. This same region was the point of maximal atrophy in 100% of individual patients in both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia samples. Using resting state functional connectivity in healthy young adults (n = 89), we showed that the seed region derived from the semantic variant primary progressive aphasia analysis was strongly connected with a large-scale network that closely resembled the distributed atrophy pattern in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia. In both patient samples, the magnitude of atrophy within a brain region was predicted by that region’s strength of functional connectivity to the temporopolar seed region in healthy adults. These findings suggest that cortical atrophy in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia may follow connectional pathways within a large-scale network that converges on the temporal pole.

Brain 2016

Blood–brain barrier leakage is more widespread in patients with cerebral small vessel disease


Objective: As blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may occur in normal aging but may also play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), we used dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)–MRI to quantify the rate and the spatial extent of BBB leakage in patients with cSVD and age- and sex-matched controls to discern cSVD-related BBB leakage from aging-related leakage.
Methods: We performed structural brain MRI and DCE-MRI in 80 patients with clinically overt cSVD and 40 age- and sex-matched controls. Using the Patlak pharmacokinetic model, we calculated the leakage rate. The mean leakage rate and relative leakage volume were calculated using noise-corrected histogram analysis. Leakage rate and leakage volume were compared between patients with cSVD and controls for the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical gray matter (CGM), and deep gray matter.
Results: Multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors showed that the leakage volume of the NAWM, WMH, and CGM was significantly larger in patients with cSVD compared with controls. No significant difference was found for leakage rate in any of the tissue regions.
Conclusion: We demonstrated a larger tissue volume with subtle BBB leakage in patients with cSVD than in controls. This was shown in the NAWM, WMH, and CGM, supporting the generalized nature of cSVD.

Neurology 2016

Dose-dependent progression of parkinsonism in manganese-exposed welders


Objective: To determine whether the parkinsonian phenotype prevalent in welders is progressive, and whether progression is related to degree of exposure to manganese (Mn)-containing welding fume.
Methods: This was a trade union–based longitudinal cohort study of 886 American welding-exposed workers with 1,492 examinations by a movement disorders specialist, including 398 workers with 606 follow-up examinations up to 9.9 years after baseline. We performed linear mixed model regression with cumulative Mn exposure as the independent variable and annual change in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) as the primary outcome, and subcategories of the UPDRS3 as secondary outcomes. The primary exposure metric was cumulative Mn exposure in mg Mn/m3-year estimated from detailed work histories.
Results: Progression of parkinsonism increased with cumulative Mn exposure. Specifically, we observed an annual change in UPDRS3 of 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.10–0.38) for each mg Mn/m3-year of exposure. Exposure was most strongly associated with progression of upper limb bradykinesia, upper and lower limb rigidity, and impairment of speech and facial expression. The association between welding exposure and progression appeared particularly marked in welders who did flux core arc welding in a confined space or workers whose baseline examination was within 5 years of first welding exposure.
Conclusions: Exposure to Mn-containing welding fume may cause a dose-dependent progression of parkinsonism, especially upper limb bradykinesia, limb rigidity, and impairment of speech and facial expression.

Neurology 2016

Methylphenidate, cognition, and epilepsy A double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study


Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH) for treating cognitive deficits in epilepsy.
Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, single-dose, 3-period crossover study in patients with epilepsy and chronic cognitive complaints comparing the effects of placebo and MPH 10 and 20 mg given 1 week apart. Cognitive outcome was evaluated on the basis of an omnibus z score calculated from performance on the Conners Continuous Performance Test 3 (ability to discriminate between target and nontarget stimuli [d'] and hit reaction time standard deviation), Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, and Medical College of Georgia Paragraph Memory Test. Adverse events and seizure frequency were monitored. An open-label follow-up is reported elsewhere.
Results: Thirty-five adult patients with epilepsy participated, of whom 31 finished. Demographics included the following: mean age = 35.3 years (range 20–62 years), 13 men and 18 women, and baseline seizure frequency of 2.8 per month. Epilepsy types were focal (n = 24), generalized (n = 6), or unclassified (n = 1). Mean epilepsy duration was 12.5 years. A statistically significant performance benefit was present at both 10-mg (p = 0.030) and 20-mg (p = 0.034) MPH doses. No seizures were associated with either MPH dose. Adverse effects leading to withdrawal included cognitive “fogginess” (n = 1 on 20 mg), anxiety/agitation (n = 1 on 10 mg), and tachycardia (n = 1). One participant was lost to follow-up after one 20-mg dose without side effect.
Conclusions: This single-dose study suggests that MPH may be effective in ameliorating some cognitive deficits in patients with epilepsy. Additional studies are required. identifier: NCT02178995.
Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that single doses of MPH improve cognitive performance on some measures of attention and processing speed in patients with epilepsy and cognitive complaints.

Neurology 2016

Sarcoplasmic MxA expression A valuable marker of dermatomyositis


Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of myxovirus resistance A (MxA) expression in the cytoplasm of myofibers in the diagnosis of dermatomyositis (DM).
Methods: We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the sarcoplasmic expression of MxA in muscles with DM by immunohistochemistry in consecutive cases of DM (n = 34) and other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (n = 120: 8 with polymyositis, 16 with anti–tRNA-synthetase antibody–associated myositis, 46 with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, and 50 with inclusion body myositis) and compared them with conventional pathologic hallmarks of DM, including perifascicular atrophy (PFA) and membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition on endomysial capillaries.
Results: The sensitivity and specificity of sarcoplasmic MxA expression were 71% and 98%, respectively. While the specificity was almost comparable to that of PFA and capillary MAC deposition, the sensitivity was higher, with PFA showing 47% sensitivity and 98% specificity and capillary MAC deposition showing 35% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Of note, in patients with DM with typical skin rash but no PFA, 44% of the samples showed sarcoplasmic MxA expression, which was higher than the 17% sensitivity of capillary MAC deposition in the population.
Conclusions: Sarcoplasmic MxA expression detected by immunohistochemistry is a more sensitive marker of DM than the conventional hallmarks, indicating its practical utility in the diagnosis of DM. It may well be included in the routine immunohistochemistry panel for myositis.
Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that immunohistochemistry-detected sarcoplasmic MxA expression accurately identifies patients with dermatomyositis.

Neurology 2016

Sleep characteristics and cognitive impairment in the general population The HypnoLaus study


Objective: To assess the association between sleep structure and cognitive impairment in the general population.
Methods: Data stemmed from 580 participants aged >65 years of the population-based CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study (Lausanne, Switzerland) who underwent complete sleep evaluation (HypnoLaus). Evaluations included demographic characteristics, personal and treatment history, sleep complaints and habits (using validated questionnaires), and a complete polysomnography at home. Cognitive function was evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and a questionnaire on the participant's everyday activities. Participants with cognitive impairment (global Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] scale score > 0) were compared with participants with no cognitive impairment (global CDR score = 0).
Results: The 291 participants with a CDR score > 0 (72.5 ± 4.6 years), compared to the 289 controls with CDR = 0 (72.1 ± 4.6 years), had significantly more light (stage N1) and less deep (stage N3) and REM sleep, as well as lower sleep efficiency, higher intrasleep wake, and higher sleepiness scores (all p < 0.05). Sleep-disordered breathing was more severe in participants with cognitive impairment with an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 18.0 (7.8–35.5)/h (p50 [p25–p75]) (vs 12.9 [7.2–24.5]/h, p < 0.001), and higher oxygen desaturation index (ODI). In the multivariate analysis after adjustments for confounding variables, the AHI and the ODI ≥4% and ≥6% were independently associated with cognitive impairment.
Conclusions: Participants aged >65 years with cognitive impairment have higher sleepiness scores and a more disrupted sleep. This seems to be related to the occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing and the associated intermittent hypoxia.

Neurology 2016

sabato 24 dicembre 2016

  • During this season of giving, let us take time to slow down and enjoy the simple things. May this wonderful time of the year touch your heart in a special way. Wishing you much happiness today and throughout the New Year.

Ictal asystole: A systematic review


To comprehensively analyze ictal asystole (IA) on a large number of subjects.


We performed a systematic review of case report studies of patients diagnosed with IA (1983–2016). Each included case was characterized with respect to patient history, IA seizure characteristics, diagnostic workup, and therapy. In addition, comparative analyses were also carried out: two alignments were developed based on the delay between epilepsy onset and IA onset (“new-onset” if <1 year, “late-onset” if ≥1 year) and asystole duration (asystole was “very prolonged” if lasted >30 s).


One hundred fifty-seven cases were included. All patients had focal epilepsy. In 7% of cases IA developed during a secondary generalized tonic–clonic seizure. Both the seizure-onset zone and the focal seizure activity at asystole beginning were usually temporal (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and were lateralized to the left hemisphere in 62% (p = 0.005 and p = 0.05, respectively). Asystole duration was 18 ± 14 s (mean±SD) (range 3–96 s); 73% of patients had late-onset, 27% had new-onset IA. Compared to late-onset IA, new-onset IA was associated with female gender (p = 0.023), preexisting heart condition (p = 0.014), focal seizure activity at asystole beginning (p = 0.012), normal neuroimaging (p = 0.013), normal interictal EEG (p < 0.001), auditory aura (p = 0.012), and drug-responsive epilepsy (p < 0.001). “Very prolonged” asystole was associated with secondary generalized tonic–clonic seizures (p = 0.003) and tended to occur in extratemporal lobe seizures (p = 0.074). No IA-related death was reported.


Characteristics considered to be typical of IA (focal, left temporal seizures appearing on grounds of a long-lasting, intractable epilepsy) seem only partially legitimate. We suggest that in new-onset IA, female gender and a preexisting heart condition could serve as predispositions in an otherwise benign epilepsy. We speculate that in late-onset IA, male-predominant changes in neuronal networks in chronic, intractable epilepsy and an accompanying autonomic dysregulation serve as facilitating factors.

Epilepsia 2016

Distribution and characteristics of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy



This study aimed to determine the frequency of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology in PSP, the clinical features of patients with this pathology, and genetic risk factors for it.


Hippocampal sections were screened with immunohistochemistry for transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa in 945 PSP cases. A subset of 261 cases that were negative in hippocampus was screened in the amygdala. The density and disruption of this pathology, as well as regional tau burden, and clinical and genetic characteristics were analyzed.


We observed transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology in 47 cases in the hippocampus and an additional 9 cases that only affected the amygdala. Hippocampal sclerosis was the strongest risk factor, followed by Alzheimer's disease pathology, argyrophilic grain disease, and older age at death. Five stages of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology were identified in PSP: Stage A had pathology only in the amygdala (16%); stage I had pathology confined to the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (9%); stage II included both regions of stage A and I (38%); stage III spread further to medial occipitotemporal gyrus (20%); and stage IV had pathology in the dorsolateral frontal lobe (18%). Anatomical areas vulnerable to PSP pathology had varying degrees of this pathology in stage II and later. PSP with transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology were older at disease onset and had lower median MMSE scores; however, the latter was driven by concurrent pathologies.


Distribution and clinical characteristics of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology in PSP were influenced by concurrent pathologies. This is the first study to observe that PSP-vulnerable regions are also susceptible to this non-tau pathology. 

Movement Disorders 2016

AV-1451 tau and β-amyloid positron emission tomography imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies



Patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) often have Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology. Our objective was to determine the pattern of positron emission tomography (PET) tau tracer AV-1451 uptake in patients with probable DLB, compared to AD, and its relationship to β-amyloid deposition on PET.


Consecutive patients with clinically probable DLB (n = 19) from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center underwent magnetic resonance imaging, AV-1451, and Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET examinations. Age- and sex-matched groups of AD dementia (n = 19) patients and clinically normal controls (n = 95) from an epidemiological cohort served as a comparison groups. Atlas- and voxel-based analyses were performed.


The AD dementia group had significantly higher AV-1451 uptake than the probable DLB group, and medial temporal uptake completely distinguished AD dementia from probable DLB. Patients with probable DLB had greater AV-1451 uptake in the posterior temporoparietal and occipital cortex compared to clinically normal controls, and in probable DLB, the uptake in these regions correlated with global cortical PiB uptake (Spearman rho = 0.63; p = 0.006).


Medial temporal lobe AV-1451 uptake distinguishes AD dementia from probable DLB, which may be useful for differential diagnosis. Elevated posterior temporoparietal and occipital AV-1451 uptake in probable DLB and its association with global cortical PiB uptake suggest an atypical pattern of tau deposition in DLB. 

Ann Neurol 2016

Association of Periodic and Rhythmic Electroencephalographic Patterns With Seizures in Critically Ill Patients

Importance  Periodic and rhythmic electroencephalographic patterns have been associated with risk of seizures in critically ill patients. However, specific features that confer higher seizure risk remain unclear.
Objective  To analyze the association of distinct characteristics of periodic and rhythmic patterns with seizures.
Design, Setting, and Participants  We reviewed electroencephalographic recordings from 4772 critically ill adults in 3 academic medical centers from February 2013 to September 2015 and performed a multivariate analysis to determine features associated with seizures.
Interventions  Continuous electroencephalography.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Association of periodic and rhythmic patterns and specific characteristics, such as pattern frequency (hertz), Plus modifier, prevalence, and stimulation-induced patterns, and the risk for seizures.
Results  Of the 4772 patients included in our study, 2868 were men and 1904 were women. Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) had the highest association with seizures regardless of frequency and the association was greater when the Plus modifier was present (58%; odds ratio [OR], 2.00, < .001). Generalized periodic discharges (GPDs) and lateralized rhythmic delta activity (LRDA) were associated with seizures in a frequency-dependent manner (1.5-2 Hz: GPDs, 24%,OR, 2.31, = .02; LRDA, 24%, OR, 1.79, P = .05; ≥ 2 Hz: GPDs, 32%, OR, 3.30, P < .001; LRDA, 40%, OR, 3.98, P < .001) as was the association with Plus (GPDs, 28%, OR, 3.57, P < .001; LRDA, 40%, P < .001). There was no difference in seizure incidence in patients with generalized rhythmic delta activity compared with no periodic or rhythmic pattern (13%, OR, 1.18, = .26). Higher prevalence of LPDs and GPDs also conferred increased seizure risk (37% frequent vs 45% abundant/continuous, OR, 1.64, = .03 for difference; 8% rare/occasional vs 15% frequent, OR, 2.71, = .03, vs 23% abundant/continuous, OR, 1.95, P = .04). Patterns associated with stimulation did not show an additional risk for seizures from the underlying pattern risk (P > .10).
Conclusions and Relevance  In this study, LPDs, LRDA, and GPDs were associated with seizures while generalized rhythmic delta activity was not. Lateralized periodic discharges were associated with seizures at all frequencies with and without Plus modifier, but LRDA and GPDs were associated with seizures when the frequency was 1.5 Hz or faster or when associated with a Plus modifier. Increased pattern prevalence was associated with increased risk for seizures in LPDs and GPDs. Stimulus-induced patterns were not associated with such risk. These findings highlight the importance of detailed electroencephalographic interpretation using standardized nomenclature for seizure risk stratification and clinical decision making.

JAMA Neurology 2016