domenica 29 gennaio 2017

Infratentorial superficial siderosis: Classification, diagnostic criteria, and rational investigation pathway


Central nervous system infratentorial superficial siderosis (iSS) is increasingly detected by blood-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Despite this, there are no standardized diagnostic criteria, and the clinical–radiological spectrum, causes, and optimum investigation strategy are not established. We reviewed clinical and radiological details of patients with iSS assessed at a specialist neurological center during 2004–2016 using predefined standardized radiological criteria. All imaging findings were rated blinded to clinical details. We identified 65 patients with iSS, whom we classified into 2 groups: type 1 (classical) and type 2 (secondary) iSS. Type 1 (classical) iSS included 48 patients without any potentially causal radiologically confirmed single spontaneous or traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, of whom 39 (83%) had hearing loss, ataxia, or myelopathy; type 2 (secondary) iSS included 17 patients with a potentially causal radiologically confirmed spontaneous or traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, of whom none had hearing loss, ataxia, or myelopathy. Of the patients with type 1 (classical) iSS, 40 (83%) had a potentially causal cranial or spinal dural abnormality, 5 (11%) had an alternative cause, and 3 (6%) had no cause identified. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography did not identify any underlying causal lesions for type 1 iSS. Type 1 (classical) iSS, defined using simple radiological criteria, is associated with a characteristic neurological syndrome. Rational investigation, including spinal MRI, nearly always reveals a potential cause, most often a dural abnormality. Catheter angiography appears to be unhelpful, suggesting that classical iSS is not associated with macrovascular arterial pathology. Recognition of type 1 (classical) iSS should allow timely diagnosis and early consideration of treatment. 

Ann Neurol 2017

Incidence of Recurrence in Posterior Circulation Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke

Importance  Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (CAIS) affects approximately 1.6 per 100 000 children per year, while stroke recurs in up to 20% of patients at 5 years. Factors determining the risk of recurrence are incompletely understood.
Objective  To investigate the incidence of the recurrence of CAIS in the posterior and anterior circulations to determine if the risk differs between the 2 locations.
Design, Setting, and Participants  A retrospective analysis of CAIS was conducted among children enrolled in a single-center prospective consecutive cohort at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2015. Children with confirmed CAIS occurring between 29 days and 17.99 years were evaluated for inclusion. Patients were excluded if infarcts were located in both the anterior and posterior distributions or if CAIS occurred as a complication of intracranial surgery or brain tumor.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Stroke recurrence.
Results  The study population included 107 patients (75 boys [70.1%] and 32 girls [29.9%]; median age at AIS, 7.7 years [interquartile range, 3.1-13.6 years]). Sixty-one children had anterior circulation CAIS (ACAIS) and 46 had posterior circulation CAIS (PCAIS). Median follow-up was 20.9 months (interquartile range, 8.7-40.4 months). For ACAIS, recurrence-free survival was 100% at 1 month and 96% (95% CI, 85%-99%) at 1 and 3 years. For PCAIS, recurrence-free survival was 88% (95% CI, 75%-95%) at 1 month and 81% (95% CI, 66%-90%) at 1 and 3 years. The hazard ratio for recurrence after PCAIS compared with ACAIS was 6.4 (95% CI, 1.4-29.8; P = .02) in univariable analysis and 5.3 (95% CI, 1.1-26.4; P = .04) after adjusting for sex and cervical dissection.
Conclusions and Relevance  We identified a subgroup of patients that comprise more than 80% of recurrences of CAIS. Three years after incident stroke, 19% of children with PCAIS had a recurrence compared with 4% of patients with ACAIS. Different mechanisms of stroke may account for this difference. Children with PCAIS may warrant increased monitoring. This study highlights the necessity for further research focused on recurrence prevention.
JAMA Neurology 2017

Association Between Serum MicroRNAs and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures of Multiple Sclerosis Severity

Importance  MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising multiple sclerosis (MS) biomarkers. Establishing the association between miRNAs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of disease severity will help define their significance and potential impact.
Objective  To correlate circulating miRNAs in the serum of patients with MS to brain and spinal MRI.
Design, Setting, and Participants  A cross-sectional study comparing serum miRNA samples with MRI metrics was conducted at a tertiary MS referral center. Two independent cohorts (41 and 79 patients) were retrospectively identified from the Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Expression of miRNA was determined by locked nucleic acid–based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test the association between miRNA and brain lesions (T2 hyperintense lesion volume [T2LV]), the ratio of T1 hypointense lesion volume [T1LV] to T2LV [T1:T2]), brain atrophy (whole brain and gray matter), and cervical spinal cord lesions (T2LV) and atrophy. The study was conducted from December 2013 to April 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures  miRNA expression.
Results  Of the 120 patients included in the study, cohort 1 included 41 participants (7 [17.1%] men), with mean (SD) age of 47.7 (9.5) years; cohort 2 had 79 participants (26 [32.9%] men) with a mean (SD) age of 43.0 (7.5) years. Associations between miRNAs and MRIs were both protective and pathogenic. Regarding miRNA signatures, a topographic specificity differed for the brain vs the spinal cord, and the signature differed between T2LV and atrophy/destructive measures. Four miRNAs showed similar significant protective correlations with T1:T2 in both cohorts, with the highest for hsa.miR.143.3p (cohort 1: Spearman correlation coefficient rs = −0.452, P = .003; cohort 2: rs = −0.225, P = .046); the others included hsa.miR.142.5p (cohort 1: rs = −0.424, P = .006; cohort 2: rs = −0.226, P = .045), hsa.miR.181c.3p (cohort 1: rs = −0.383, P = .01; cohort 2: rs = −0.222, P = .049), and hsa.miR.181c.5p (cohort 1: rs = −0.433, P = .005; cohort 2: rs = −0.231, P = .04). In the 2 cohorts, hsa.miR.486.5p (cohort 1: rs = 0.348, P = .03; cohort 2: rs = 0.254, P = .02) and hsa.miR.92a.3p (cohort 1: rs = 0.392, P = .01; cohort 2: rs = 0.222, P = .049) showed similar significant pathogenic correlations with T1:T2; hsa.miR.375 (cohort 1: rs = −0.345, P = .03; cohort 2: rs = −0.257, P = .022) and hsa.miR.629.5p (cohort 1: rs = −0.350, P = .03; cohort 2: rs = −0.269, P = .02) showed significant pathogenic correlations with brain atrophy. Although we found several miRNAs associated with MRI outcomes, none of these associations remained significant when correcting for multiple comparisons, suggesting that further validation of our findings is needed.
Conclusions and Relevance  Serum miRNAs may serve as MS biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and act as surrogate markers to identify underlying disease processes.
JAMA Neurology 2017

18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography in Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy

The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer’s pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Regional analysis of variance and a support vector machine were used to compare and discriminate the clinical groups, respectively. We also examined the 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding in post mortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a control case to assess the 18F-AV-1451 binding specificity to Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s tau pathology. There was increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in multiple regions in living patients with Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy relative to controls [main effect of group, F(2,41) = 17.5, P < 0.0001; region of interest × group interaction, F(2,68) = 7.5, P < 0.00001]. More specifically, 18F-AV-1451 binding was significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, relative to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and with control subjects, in the hippocampus and in occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal cortices (t’s > 2.2, P’s < 0.04). Conversely, in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, relative to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 18F-AV-1451 binding was elevated in the midbrain (t = 2.1, P < 0.04); while patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed, relative to controls, increased 18F-AV-1451 uptake in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain, and in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum (t’s > 2.7, P’s < 0.02). The support vector machine assigned patients’ diagnoses with 94% accuracy. The post mortem autoradiographic data showed that 18F-AV-1451 strongly bound to Alzheimer-related tau pathology, but less specifically in progressive supranuclear palsy. 18F-AV-1451 binding to the basal ganglia was strong in all groups in vivo. Postmortem histochemical staining showed absence of neuromelanin-containing cells in the basal ganglia, indicating that off-target binding to neuromelanin is an insufficient explanation of 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography data in vivo, at least in the basal ganglia. Overall, we confirm the potential of 18F-AV-1451 as a heuristic biomarker, but caution is indicated in the neuropathological interpretation of its binding. Off-target binding may contribute to disease profiles of 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography, especially in primary tauopathies such as progressive supranuclear palsy. We suggest that 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography is a useful biomarker to assess tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and to distinguish it from other tauopathies with distinct clinical and pathological characteristics such as progressive supranuclear palsy.

Brain 2017

Safety and efficacy of ozanezumab in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial



Neurite outgrowth inhibitor A (Nogo-A) is thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A monoclonal antibody against Nogo-A showed a positive effect in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS, and a humanised form of this antibody (ozanezumab) was well tolerated in a first-in-human trial. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of ozanezumab in patients with ALS.


This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial was done in 34 centres in 11 countries. Patients aged 18–80 years with a diagnosis of familial or sporadic ALS were randomly assigned (1:1), centrally according to a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive ozanezumab (15 mg/kg) or placebo as intravenous infusions over 1 h every 2 weeks for 46 weeks, followed by assessments at week 48 and week 60. Patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was a joint-rank analysis of function (ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised) and overall survival, analysed at 48 weeks in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with, number NCT01753076, and with, NOG112264, and is completed.


Between Dec 20, 2012, and Nov 1, 2013, we recruited 307 patients, of whom 303 were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=151) or ozanezumab (n=152). The adjusted mean of the joint-rank score was −14·9 (SE 13·5) for the ozanezumab group and 15·0 (13·6) for the placebo group, with a least squares mean difference of −30·0 (95% CI −67·9 to 7·9; p=0·12). Overall, reported adverse events, serious adverse events, and adverse events leading to permanent discontinuation of study drug or withdrawal from study were similar between the treatment groups, except for dyspepsia (ten [7%] in the ozanezumab group vs four [3%] in the placebo group), depression (11 [7%] vs five [3%]), and diarrhoea (25 [16%] vs 12 [8%]). Respiratory failure was the most common serious adverse event (12 [8%] vs seven [5%]). At week 60, the number of deaths was higher in the ozanezumab group (20 [13%]) than in the placebo group (16 [11%]), mainly as a result of respiratory failure (ten [7%] vs five [3%]). Two deaths were considered related to the study drug (bladder transitional cell carcinoma in the ozanezumab group and cerebrovascular accident in the placebo group).


Ozanezumab did not show efficacy compared with placebo in patients with ALS. Therefore, Nogo-A does not seem to be an effective therapeutic target in ALS.

Lancet Neurology 2017

Predictors of incident epilepsy in older adults The Cardiovascular Health Study


Objective: To determine the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of epilepsy among older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).
Methods: We analyzed data prospectively collected in CHS and merged with data from outpatient Medicare administrative claims. We identified cases with epilepsy using self-report, antiepileptic medication, hospitalization discharge ICD-9 codes, and outpatient Medicare ICD-9 codes. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to identify factors independently associated with incident epilepsy.
Results: At baseline, 42% of the 5,888 participants were men and 84% were white. At enrollment, 3.7% (215 of 5,888) met the criteria for prevalent epilepsy. During 14 years of follow-up totaling 48,651 person-years, 120 participants met the criteria for incident epilepsy, yielding an incidence rate of 2.47 per 1,000 person-years. The period prevalence of epilepsy by the end of follow-up was 5.7% (335 of 5,888). Epilepsy incidence rates were significantly higher among blacks than nonblacks: 4.44 vs 2.17 per 1,000 person-years (p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, risk of incident epilepsy was significantly higher among blacks compared to nonblacks (hazard ratio [HR] 4.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99–8.17), those 75 to 79 compared to those 65 to 69 years of age (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.21–3.55), and those with history of stroke (HR 3.49, 95% CI 1.37–8.88).
Conclusions: Epilepsy in older adults in the United States was common. Blacks, the very old, and those with history of stroke have a higher risk of incident epilepsy. The association with race remains unexplained.

Neurology 2017

Multimodal MRI profiling of focal cortical dysplasia type II


Objective: To characterize in vivo MRI signatures of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIA and type IIB through combined analysis of morphology, intensity, microstructure, and function.
Methods: We carried out a multimodal 3T MRI profiling of 33 histologically proven FCD type IIA (9) and IIB (24) lesions. A multisurface approach operating on manual consensus labels systematically sampled intracortical and subcortical lesional features. Geodesic distance mapping quantified the same features in the lesion perimeter. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between MRI and histology, while supervised pattern learning was used for individualized subtype prediction.
Results: FCD type IIB was characterized by abnormal morphology, intensity, diffusivity, and function across all surfaces, while type IIA lesions presented only with increased fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal and reduced diffusion anisotropy close to the gray–white matter interface. Similar to lesional patterns, perilesional anomalies were more marked in type IIB extending up to 16 mm. Structural MRI markers correlated with categorical histologic characteristics. A profile-based classifier predicted FCD subtypes with equal sensitivity of 85%, while maintaining a high specificity of 94% against healthy and disease controls.
Conclusions: Image processing applied to widely available MRI contrasts has the ability to dissociate FCD subtypes at a mesoscopic level. Integrating in vivo staging of pathologic traits with automated lesion detection is likely to provide an objective definition of lesional boundary and assist emerging approaches, such as minimally invasive thermal ablation, which do not supply tissue specimen.

Neurology 2017

Antisaccades in Parkinson disease A new marker of postural control?


Objective: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks.
Methods: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades). We identified correlations between the clinical and physiologic parameters that best characterized patients with postural instability. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in 2 pathways involving the frontal oculomotor cortices and the MLR and sought correlations with saccadic behavior.
Results: Patients with PD with postural instability showed altered antisaccade latencies that correlated with the stand-walk-sit time (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and the duration of anticipatory postural adjustments before gait initiation (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). Functional connectivity between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the frontal eye field correlated with antisaccade latency in the HCs (r = −0.54, p = 0.02) but not in patients with PD.
Conclusions: In PD, impairment of antisaccade latencies, a simple and robust parameter, may be an indirect marker correlated with impaired release of anticipatory postural program. PPN alterations may account for both antisaccade and postural impairments.

Neurology 2017

Frontotemporal dementia with the V337M MAPT mutation Tau-PET and pathology correlations


Objective: To assess the efficacy of [18F]AV1451 PET in visualizing tau pathology in vivo in a patient with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) associated with the V337M microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutation.
Methods: MAPT mutations are associated with the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurons and glia. The PET tracer [18F]AV1451 binds with high affinity to paired helical filaments tau that comprises neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (AD), while postmortem studies suggest lower or absent binding to the tau filaments of the majority of non-AD tauopathies. We describe clinical, structural MRI, and [18F]AV1451 PET findings in a V337M MAPT mutation carrier affected by FTD and pathologic findings in his affected mother and in an unrelated V337M MAPT carrier also affected with FTD. The biochemical similarity between paired helical filament tau in AD and MAPT V337M predicts that the tau pathology associated with this mutation constitutes a compelling target for [18F]AV1451 imaging.
Results: We found a strong association between topography and degree of [18F]AV1451 tracer retention in the proband and distribution of tau pathology in the brain of the proband's mother and the unrelated V337M mutation carrier. We also found a significant correlation between the degree of regional MRI brain atrophy and the extent of [18F]AV1451 binding in the proband and a strong association between the proband's clinical presentation and the extent of regional brain atrophy and tau accumulation as assessed by structural brain MRI and [18F]AV1451PET.
Conclusion: Our study supports the usefulness of [18F]AV1451 to characterize tau pathology in at least a subset of pathogenic MAPT mutations.

Neurology 2017

Long-term functional outcome in patients with acquired infections after acute spinal cord injury


Objective: To investigate whether prevalent hospital-acquired pneumonia and wound infection affect the clinical long-term outcome after acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).
Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study within the prospective multicenter National Spinal Cord Injury Database (Birmingham, Alabama). We screened datasets of 3,834 patients enrolled in 20 trial centers from 1995 to 2005 followed up until 2016. Eligibility criteria were cervical SCI and American Spinal Cord Injury Association impairment scale A, B, and C. Pneumonia or postoperative wound infections (Pn/Wi) acquired during acute medical care/inpatient rehabilitation were analyzed for their association with changes in the motor items of the Functional Independence Measure (FIMmotor) using regression models (primary endpoint 5-year follow-up). Pn/Wi-related mortality was assessed as a secondary endpoint (10-year follow-up).
Results: A total of 1,203 patients met the eligibility criteria. During hospitalization, 564 patients (47%) developed Pn/Wi (pneumonia n = 540; postoperative wound infection n = 11; pneumonia and postoperative wound infection n = 13). Adjusted linear mixed models after multiple imputation revealed that Pn/Wi are significantly associated with lower gain in FIMmotor up to 5 years after SCI (−7.4 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] −11.5 to −3.3). Adjusted Cox regression identified Pn/Wi as a highly significant risk factor for death up to 10 years after SCI (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.16).
Conclusion: Hospital-acquired Pn/Wi are predictive of propagated disability and mortality after SCI. Pn/Wi qualify as a potent and targetable outcome-modifying factor. Pn/Wi prevention constitutes a viable strategy to protect functional recovery and reduce mortality. Pn/Wi can be considered as rehabilitation confounders in clinical trials.

Neurology 2017

sabato 21 gennaio 2017

The epileptic and nonepileptic spectrum of paroxysmal dyskinesias: Channelopathies, synaptopathies, and transportopathies


Historically, the syndrome of primary paroxysmal dyskinesias was considered a group of disorders as a result of ion channel dysfunction. This proposition was primarily based on the discovery of mutations in ion channels, which caused other episodic neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine and also supported by the frequent association between paroxysmal dyskinesias and epilepsy. However, the discovery of the genes responsible for the 3 classic forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias disproved this ion channel theory. On the other hand, novel gene mutations implicating ion channels have been recently reported to produce episodic movement disorders clinically similar to the classic paroxysmal dyskinesias. Here, we review the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of the paroxysmal dyskinesias, further proposing a pathophysiological framework according to which they can be classified as synaptopathies (proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 and myofibrillogenesis regulator gene), channelopathies (calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 and voltage-gated sodium channel type 8), or transportopathies (solute carrier family 2 member 1). This proposal might serve to explain similarities and differences among the various paroxysmal dyskinesias in terms of clinical features, treatment response, and natural history. 

Movement Disorders 2017

PREDICT-PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson's disease


A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD).


To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population.


Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations. Risk scores were calculated based on the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD, and individuals were grouped into higher (above 15th centile), medium, and lower risk groups (below 85th centile). Previously defined indicators of increased risk of PD (“intermediate markers”), including smell loss, rapid eye movement–sleep behavior disorder, and finger-tapping speed, and incident PD were used as outcomes. The correlation of risk scores with intermediate markers and movement of individuals between risk groups was assessed each year and prospectively. Exploratory Cox regression analyses with incident PD as the dependent variable were performed.


A total of 1323 participants were recruited at baseline and >79% completed assessments each year. Annual risk scores were correlated with intermediate markers of PD each year and baseline scores were correlated with intermediate markers during follow-up (all Pvalues < 0.001). Incident PD diagnoses during follow-up were significantly associated with baseline risk score (hazard ratio = 4.39, P = .045). GBA variants or G2019S LRRK2 mutations were found in 47 participants, and the predictive power for incident PD was improved by the addition of genetic variants to risk scores.


The online PREDICT-PD algorithm is a unique and simple method to identify indicators of PD risk. 

Movement Disorders 2017

The psychosis spectrum in Parkinson disease

In 2007, the clinical and research profile of illusions, hallucinations, delusions and related symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) was raised with the publication of a consensus definition of PD psychosis. Symptoms that were previously deemed benign and clinically insignificant were incorporated into a continuum of severity, leading to the rapid expansion of literature focusing on clinical aspects, mechanisms and treatment. Here, we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Key topics include the prospective risk of dementia in individuals with PD psychosis, and the causal and modifying effects of PD medication. We discuss recent developments, including recognition of an increase in the prevalence of psychosis with disease duration, addition of new visual symptoms to the psychosis continuum, and identification of frontal executive, visual perceptual and memory dysfunction at different disease stages. In addition, we highlight novel risk factors — for example, autonomic dysfunction — that have emerged from prospective studies, structural MRI evidence of frontal, parietal, occipital and hippocampal involvement, and approval of pimavanserin for the treatment of PD psychosis. The accumulating evidence raises novel questions and directions for future research to explore the clinical management and biomarker potential of PD psychosis.

Nature Reviews Neurology 2017

Electroencephalographic Periodic Discharges and Frequency-Dependent Brain Tissue Hypoxia in Acute Brain Injury

Importance  Periodic discharges (PDs) that do not meet seizure criteria, also termed the ictal interictal continuum, are pervasive on electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings after acute brain injury. However, their association with brain homeostasis and the need for clinical intervention remain unknown.
Objective  To determine whether distinct PD patterns can be identified that, similar to electrographic seizures, cause brain tissue hypoxia, a measure of ongoing brain injury.
Design, Setting, and Participants  This prospective cohort study included 90 comatose patients with high-grade spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent continuous surface (scalp) EEG (sEEG) recording and multimodality monitoring, including invasive measurements of intracortical (depth) EEG (dEEG), partial pressure of oxygen in interstitial brain tissue (Pbto2), and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). Patient data were collected from June 1, 2006, to September 1, 2014, at a single tertiary care center. The retrospective analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to May 1, 2016, with a hypothesis that the effect on brain tissue oxygenation was primarily dependent on the discharge frequency.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Electroencephalographic recordings were visually classified based on PD frequency and spatial distribution of discharges. Correlations between mean multimodality monitoring data and change-point analyses were performed to characterize electrophysiological changes by applying bootstrapping.
Results  Of the 90 patients included in the study (26 men and 64 women; mean [SD] age, 55 [15] years), 32 (36%) had PDs on sEEG and dEEG recordings and 21 (23%) on dEEG recordings only. Frequencies of PDs ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 Hz. Median Pbto2 was 23 mm Hg without PDs compared with 16 mm Hg at 2.0 Hz and 14 mm Hg at 2.5 Hz (differences were significant for 0 vs 2.5 Hz based on bootstrapping). Change-point analysis confirmed a temporal association of high-frequency PD onset (≥2.0 Hz) and Pbto2 reduction (median normalized Pbto2 decreased by 25% 5-10 minutes after onset). Increased regional CBF of 21.0 mL/100 g/min for 0 Hz, 25.9 mL/100 g/min for 1.0 Hz, 27.5 mL/100 g/min for 1.5 Hz, and 34.7 mL/100 g/min for 2.0 Hz and increased global cerebral perfusion pressure of 91 mm Hg for 0 Hz, 100.5 mm Hg for 0.5 Hz, 95.5 mm Hg for 1.0 Hz, 97.0 mm Hg for 2.0 Hz, 98.0 mm Hg for 2.5 Hz, 95.0 mm Hg for 2.5 Hz, and 67.8 mm Hg for 3.0 Hz were seen for higher PD frequencies.
Conclusions and Relevance  These data give some support to consider redefining the continuum between seizures and PDs, suggesting that additional damage after acute brain injury may be reflected by frequency changes in electrocerebral recordings. Similar to seizures, cerebral blood flow increases in patients with PDs to compensate for the increased metabolic demand but higher-frequency PDs (>2 per second) may be inadequately compensated without an additional rise in CBF and associated with brain tissue hypoxia, or higher-frequency PDs may reflect inadequacies in brain compensatory mechanisms.

JAMA Neurology 2017