mercoledì 29 marzo 2017
Serotonin and dopamine transporter PET changes in the premotor phase of LRRK2 parkinsonism: cross-sectional studies
People with Parkinson's disease can show premotor neurochemical changes in the dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic systems. Using PET, we assessed whether dopaminergic and serotonin transporter changes are similar in LRRK2 mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease and individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and whether LRRK2 mutation carriers without motor symptoms show PET changes.
We did two cross-sectional PET studies at the Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre in Vancouver, BC, Canada. We included LRRK2 mutation carriers with or without manifest Parkinson's disease, people with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and age-matched healthy controls, all aged 18 years or older. People with Parkinson's disease were diagnosed by a neurologist with movement disorder training, in accordance with the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria. LRRK2 carrier status was confirmed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In the first study, LRRK2 mutation carriers with or without manifest Parkinson's disease who were referred for investigation between July, 1999, and January, 2012, were scanned with PET tracers for the membrane dopamine transporter, and dopamine synthesis and storage (18F-6-fluoro-L-dopa; 18F-FDOPA). We compared findings with those in people with sporadic Parkinson's disease and age-matched healthy controls. In the second study, distinct groups of LRRK2 mutation carriers, individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and age-matched healthy controls seen from November, 2012, to May, 2016, were studied with tracers for the serotonin transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Striatal dopamine transporter binding, VMAT2 binding, 18F-FDOPA uptake, and serotonin transporter binding in multiple brain regions were compared by ANCOVA, adjusted for age.
Between January, 1997, and January, 2012, we obtained data for our first study from 40 LRRK2 mutation carriers, 63 individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and 35 healthy controls. We identified significant group differences in striatal dopamine transporter binding (all age ranges in caudate and putamen, p<0·0001) and 18F-FDOPA uptake (in caudate: age ≤50 years, p=0·0002; all other age ranges, p<0·0001; in putamen: all age ranges, p<0·0001). LRRK2 mutation carriers with manifest Parkinson's disease (n=15) had reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding and 18F-FDOPA uptake, comparable with amounts seen in individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease of similar duration. LRRK2 mutation carriers without manifest Parkinson's disease (n=25) had greater 18F-FDOPA uptake and dopamine transporter binding than did individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, with 18F-FDOPA uptake comparable with controls and dopamine transporter binding lower than in controls. Between November, 2012, and May, 2016, we obtained data for our second study from 16 LRRK2 mutation carriers, 13 individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and nine healthy controls. Nine LRRK2 mutation carriers without manifest Parkinson's disease had significantly elevated serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus (compared with controls, individuals with LRRK2 Parkinson's disease, and people with sporadic Parkinson's disease, p<0·0001), striatum (compared with people with sporadic Parkinson's disease, p=0·02), and brainstem (compared with LRRK2 mutation carriers with manifest Parkinson's disease, p=0·01), after adjustment for age. Serotonin transporter binding in the cortex did not differ significantly between groups after age adjustment. Striatal VMAT2 binding was reduced in all individuals with manifest Parkinson's disease and reduced asymmetrically in one LRRK2 mutation carrier without manifest disease.
Dopaminergic and serotonergic changes progress in a similar fashion in LRRK2 mutation carriers with manifest Parkinson's disease and individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, but LRRK2 mutation carriers without manifest Parkinson's disease show increased serotonin transporter binding in the striatum, brainstem, and hypothalamus, possibly reflecting compensatory changes in serotonergic innervation preceding the motor onset of Parkinson's disease. Increased serotonergic innervation might contribute to clinical differences in LRRK2 Parkinson's disease, including the emergence of non-motor symptoms and, potentially, differences in the long-term response to levodopa.
Lancet Neurology 2017
Effect of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with or without multidomain intervention on cognitive function in elderly adults with memory complaints (MAPT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial
No large trials have been done to investigate the efficacy of an intervention combining a specific compound and several lifestyle interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of cognitive decline. We tested the effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and a multidomain intervention (physical activity, cognitive training, and nutritional advice), alone or in combination, compared with placebo, on cognitive decline.
The Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial was a 3-year, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled superiority trial with four parallel groups at 13 memory centres in France and Monaco. Participants were non-demented, aged 70 years or older, and community-dwelling, and had either relayed a spontaneous memory complaint to their physician, limitations in one instrumental activity of daily living, or slow gait speed. They were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to either the multidomain intervention (43 group sessions integrating cognitive training, physical activity, and nutrition, and three preventive consultations) plus omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ie, two capsules a day providing a total daily dose of 800 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 225 mg eicosapentaenoic acid), the multidomain intervention plus placebo, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alone, or placebo alone. A computer-generated randomisation procedure was used to stratify patients by centre. All participants and study staff were blinded to polyunsaturated fatty acid or placebo assignment, but were unblinded to the multidomain intervention component. Assessment of cognitive outcomes was done by independent neuropsychologists blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was change from baseline to 36 months on a composite Z score combining four cognitive tests (free and total recall of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test, ten Mini-Mental State Examination orientation items, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and Category Naming Test) in the modified intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00672685).
1680 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated between May 30, 2008, and Feb 24, 2011. In the modified intention-to-treat population (n=1525), there were no significant differences in 3-year cognitive decline between any of the three intervention groups and the placebo group. Between-group differences compared with placebo were 0·093 (95% CI 0·001 to 0·184; adjusted p=0·142) for the combined intervention group, 0·079 (−0·012 to 0·170; 0·179) for the multidomain intervention plus placebo group, and 0·011 (−0·081 to 0·103; 0·812) for the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids group. 146 (36%) participants in the multidomain plus polyunsaturated fatty acids group, 142 (34%) in the multidomain plus placebo group, 134 (33%) in the polyunsaturated fatty acids group, and 133 (32%) in the placebo group had at least one serious emerging adverse event. Four treatment-related deaths were recorded (two in the multidomain plus placebo group and two in the placebo group). The interventions did not raise any safety concerns and there were no differences between groups in serious or other adverse events.
The multidomain intervention and polyunsaturated fatty acids, either alone or in combination, had no significant effects on cognitive decline over 3 years in elderly people with memory complaints. An effective multidomain intervention strategy to prevent or delay cognitive impairment and the target population remain to be determined, particularly in real-world settings.
Lancet Neurology 2017
Alzheimer Disease Signature Neurodegeneration and APOE Genotype in Mild Cognitive Impairment With Suspected Non–Alzheimer Disease Pathophysiology
Importance There are conflicting results claiming that Alzheimer disease signature neurodegeneration may be more, less, or similarly advanced in individuals with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)–negative (Aβ−) suspected non–Alzheimer disease pathophysiology (SNAP) than in Aβ-positive (Aβ+) counterparts.
Objective To examine patterns of neurodegeneration in individuals with SNAP compared with their Aβ+ counterparts.
Design, Setting, and Participants A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal individuals receiving care at Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites in the United States and Canada for a mean follow-up period of 30.5 months from August 1, 2005, to June 30, 2015. Several neurodegeneration biomarkers and longitudinal cognitive function were compared between patients with distinct SNAP (Aβ− and neurodegeneration-positive [Aβ−N+]) subtypes and their Aβ+N+ counterparts.
Main Outcomes and Measures Participants were classified according to the results of their florbetapir F-18 (Aβ) positron emission tomography and their Alzheimer disease–associated neurodegeneration status (temporoparietal glucose metabolism determined by fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 [FDG]–labeled positron emission tomography and/or hippocampal volume [HV] determined by magnetic resonance imaging: participants with subthreshold HV values were regarded as exhibiting hippocampal volume atrophy [HV+], while subthreshold mean FDG values were considered as FDG hypometabolism [FDG+]).
Results The study comprised 265 cognitively normal individuals (135 women and 130 men; mean [SD] age, 75.5 [6.7] years) and 522 patients with MCI (225 women and 297 men; mean [SD] age, 72.6 [7.8] years). A total of 469 individuals with MCI had data on neurodegeneration biomarkers; of these patients, 107 were Aβ−N+ (22.8%; 63 FDG+, 82 HV+, and 38 FDG+HV+) and 187 were Aβ+N+ (39.9%; 135 FDG+, 147 HV+, and 95 FDG+HV+ cases). A total of 209 cognitively normal participants had data on neurodegeneration biomarkers; of these, 52 were Aβ−N+ (24.9%; 30 FDG+, 33 HV+, and 11 FDG+HV+) and 37 were Aβ+N+ (17.7%; 22 FDG+, 26 HV+, and 11 FDG+HV+). Compared with their Aβ+ counterparts, all patients with MCI SNAP subtypes displayed better preservation of temporoparietal FDG metabolism (mean [SD] FDG: Aβ–N+, 1.25 [0.11] vs Aβ+N+, 1.19 [0.11]), less severe atrophy of the lateral temporal lobe, and lower mean (SD) cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau (59.2 [32.8] vs 111.3 [56.4]). In MCI with SNAP, sustained glucose metabolism and gray matter volume were associated with disproportionately low APOE ε4 (Aβ–N+, 18.7% vs Aβ+N+, 70.6%) and disproportionately high APOE ε2 (18.7% vs 4.8%) carrier prevalence. Slower cognitive decline and lower rates of progression to Alzheimer disease (Aβ–N+, 6.5% vs Aβ+N+, 32.6%) were also seen in patients with MCI with SNAP subtypes compared with their Aβ+ counterparts. In cognitively normal individuals, neurodegeneration biomarkers did not differ between Aβ−N+ and Aβ+N+ cases.
Conclusions and Relevance In MCI with SNAP, low APOE ε4 and high APOE ε2 carrier prevalence may account for differences in neurodegeneration patterns between Aβ−N+ and Aβ+N+ cases independent from the neuroimaging biomarker modality used to define neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer disease.
Importance Existing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or imaging (tau positron emission tomography) biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive or expensive. Biomarkers based on standard blood test results would be useful in research, drug development, and clinical practice. Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) has recently been proposed as a blood-based biomarker for neurodegeneration in dementias.
Objective To test whether plasma NFL concentrations are increased in AD and associated with cognitive decline, other AD biomarkers, and imaging evidence of neurodegeneration.
Design, Setting, and Participants In this prospective case-control study, an ultrasensitive assay was used to measure plasma NFL concentration in 193 cognitively healthy controls, 197 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 180 patients with AD dementia from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The study dates were September 7, 2005, to February 13, 2012. The plasma NFL analysis was performed in September 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures Associations were tested between plasma NFL and diagnosis, Aβ pathologic features, CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury, cognition, brain structure, and metabolism.
Results Among 193 cognitively healthy controls, 197 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 180 patients with AD with dementia, plasma NFL correlated with CSF NFL (Spearman ρ = 0.59, P < .001). Plasma NFL was increased in patients with MCI (mean, 42.8 ng/L) and patients with AD dementia (mean, 51.0 ng/L) compared with controls (mean, 34.7 ng/L) (P < .001) and had high diagnostic accuracy for patients with AD with dementia vs controls (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.87, which is comparable to established CSF biomarkers). Plasma NFL was particularly high in patients with MCI and patients with AD dementia with Aβ pathologic features. High plasma NFL correlated with poor cognition and AD-related atrophy (at baseline and longitudinally) and with brain hypometabolism (longitudinally).
Conclusions and Relevance Plasma NFL is associated with AD diagnosis and with cognitive, biochemical, and imaging hallmarks of the disease. This finding implies a potential usefulness for plasma NFL as a noninvasive biomarker in AD.
JAMA Neurology 2017
Importance The effect of childhood epilepsy on later-life cognitive and brain health is an unclear and little-explored issue.
Objective To determine whether adults with a history of childhood-onset epilepsy exhibit increased brain amyloid accumulation, possibly predisposing to accelerated cognitive impairment or even frank cognitive disorders in later life.
Design, Setting, and Participants Forty-one adults from a population-based cohort of individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy in southwestern Finland, together with 46 matched population-based controls, underwent amyloid ligand carbon 11–labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography after long-term prospective follow-up. The PiB uptake was quantified as a region to cerebellar cortex ratio. Tracer uptake was evaluated visually and analyzed voxel by voxel over the entire brain to investigate the spatial distribution of amyloid deposition. The study was conducted from May 2011 to October 2013; data analysis was performed from January 2014 to October 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures Brain amyloid accumulation.
Results The 41 individuals with epilepsy were originally enrolled in the Turku Adult Childhood Onset Epilepsy study at the mean (SD) age of 5.1 (4.5) years (range, 0-14 years). After a mean 52.5 (4.0) years of follow-up, the participants were evaluated (26 [63%] were women; the mean [SD] age was 56.0 [4.3] years). Nine individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy (22%) and 3 control participants (7%) had a visually abnormal PiB scan showing high cortical uptake in at least 1 of the evaluated brain regions (P = .04). In semiquantitative analyses, there was a significant interaction effect indicating higher prefrontal cortex uptake in apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele carriers than in noncarriers in participants (mean [SD], 1.66 [0.41] vs 1.43 [0.15]) compared with controls (1.40 [0.26) vs 1.41 [0.12]) (group × APOE interaction, F = 6.8; P = .01). In addition, there was a significant group effect showing higher tracer uptake in participants compared with controls (group effect, F = 8.0; P = .006).
Conclusions and Relevance Adults with childhood-onset epilepsy, particularly APOE ε4 carriers, have an increased brain amyloid load at late middle age. Thus, epilepsy is linked with a biomarker that might be related to accelerated brain aging and can be considered a neurobiological predisposition to later-life cognitive disorders.
sabato 18 marzo 2017
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Eur J Neurol 2017
J Alzheimer DIs 2017
Stroke is the leading cause of complex adult disability in the world. Recovery from stroke is often incomplete, which leaves many people dependent on others for their care. The improvement of long-term outcomes should, therefore, be a clinical and research priority. As a result of advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in recovery and repair after stroke, therapeutic opportunities to promote recovery through manipulation of poststroke plasticity have never been greater. This work has almost exclusively been carried out in preclinical animal models of stroke with little translation into human studies. The challenge ahead is to develop a mechanistic understanding of recovery from stroke in humans. Advances in neuroimaging techniques now enable us to reconcile behavioural accounts of recovery with molecular and cellular changes. Consequently, clinical trials can be designed in a stratified manner that takes into account when an intervention should be delivered and who is most likely to benefit. This approach is expected to lead to a substantial change in how restorative therapeutic strategies are delivered in patients after stroke.
Nature Reviews Neurology 2017
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a devastating and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. The clinical presentation of this disease is highly variable, with parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic failure being the most common — and often debilitating — symptoms. These symptoms progress rapidly, and patients die from MSA-related complications after 9 years of symptom duration on average. Unfortunately, the course of the disease cannot be improved by drug or surgical treatment. In addition, symptomatic treatment options are currently limited, and therapeutic benefits are often only transient. Thus, further interventional studies of candidate disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies are essential to improve patient care. In the past 15 years, the understanding of MSA-specific requirements in trial methodology has improved, resulting in a substantial increase in high-quality interventional studies. In this Review, we discuss MSA risk factors, clinical presentation and neuropathology, and we provide a hypothesis on key pathophysiological events, a summary of recent randomized controlled trials, and an overview of ongoing international collaborations
Nature Reviews Neurology 2017
Neurofibrillary Tangle Stage and the Rate of Progression of Alzheimer Symptoms Modeling Using an Autopsy Cohort and Application to Clinical Trial Design
Importance The heterogeneity of rate of clinical progression among patients with Alzheimer disease leads to difficulty in providing clinical counseling and diminishes the power of clinical trials using disease-modifying agents.
Objective To gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the natural history of progression in Alzheimer disease for the purpose of improving both clinical care and clinical trial design.
Design, Setting, and Participants A longitudinal cohort study of aging from 2005 to 2014 in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center. Clinical evaluation of the participants was conducted in 31 National Institute on Aging’s Alzheimer Disease Centers. Nine hundred eighty-four participants in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center cohort study who died and underwent autopsy and met inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Main Outcomes and Measures We sought to model the possibility that knowledge of neurofibrillary tangle burden in the presence of moderate or frequent plaques would add to the ability to predict clinical rate of progression during the ensuing 2 to 3 years. We examined the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center autopsy data to evaluate the effect of different neurofibrillary tangle stages on the rates of progression on several standard clinical instruments: the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes, a verbal memory test (logical memory), and a controlled oral word association task (vegetable naming), implementing a reverse-time longitudinal modeling approach in conjunction with latent class estimation to adjust for unmeasured sources of heterogeneity.
Results Several correlations between clinical variables and neurocognitive performance suggest a basis for heterogeneity: Higher education level was associated with lower Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (β = −0.19; P < .001), and frequent vs moderate neuritic plaques were associated with higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (β = 1.64; P < .001) and lower logical memory score (β = −1.07; P = .005). The rate of change of the clinical and cognitive scores varied depending on Braak stage, when adjusting for plaques, age of death, sex, education, and APOE genotype. For example, comparing high vs low Braak stage with other variables fixed, the logical memory score decreased a substantial 0.38 additional units per year (95% CI, −0.70 to −0.06; P = .02). Using these data, we estimate that a 300-participant clinical trial with end point of a 20% improvement in slope in rate of change of Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes has 89% power when all participants in the trial are from the high Braak stage, compared with 29% power if Braak stage had not used for eligibility.
Conclusions and Relevance We found that knowledge of neurofibrillary tangle stage, modeled as the sort of information that could be available from tau positron-emission tomography scans and its use to determine eligibility to a trial, could dramatically improve the power of clinical trials and equivalently reduce the required sample sizes of clinical trials.
JAMA Neurology 2017