sabato 28 novembre 2015
A noninterventional study evaluating the effectiveness and safety of lacosamide added to monotherapy in patients with epilepsy with partial-onset seizures in daily clinical practice: The VITOBA study
Estriol combined with glatiramer acetate for women with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial
Relapses of multiple sclerosis decrease during pregnancy, when the hormone estriol is increased. Estriol treatment is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in preclinical studies. In a small single-arm study of people with multiple sclerosis estriol reduced gadolinium-enhancing lesions and was favourably immunomodulatory. We assessed whether estriol treatment reduces multiple sclerosis relapses in women.
We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial at 16 academic neurology centres in the USA, between June 28, 2007, and Jan 9, 2014. Women aged 18–50 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned (1:1) with a random permuted block design to either daily oral estriol (8 mg) or placebo, each in combination with injectable glatiramer acetate 20 mg daily. Patients and all study personnel, except for pharmacists and statisticians, were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate after 24 months, with a significance level of p=0·10. Relapses were confirmed by an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score assessed by an independent physician. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00451204.
We enrolled 164 patients: 83 were allocated to the estriol group and 81 were allocated to the placebo group. The annualised confirmed relapse rate was 0·25 relapses per year (95% CI 0·17–0·37) in the estriol group versus 0·37 relapses per year (0·25–0·53) in the placebo group (adjusted rate ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·37–1·05; p=0·077). The proportion of patients with serious adverse events did not differ substantially between the estriol group and the placebo group (eight [10%] of 82 patients vs ten [13%] of 76 patients). Irregular menses were more common in the estriol group than in the placebo group (19 [23%] vs three [4%], p=0·0005), but vaginal infections were less common (one [1%] vs eight [11%], p=0·0117). There were no differences in breast fibrocystic disease, uterine fibroids, or endometrial lining thickness as assessed by clinical examination, mammogram, uterine ultrasound, or endometrial lining biopsy.
Estriol plus glatiramer acetate met our criteria for reducing relapse rates, and treatment was well tolerated over 24 months. These results warrant further investigation in a phase 3 trial.
Lancet Neurology 2015
Epileptic seizures are generally unpredictable and arise spontaneously. Patients often report non-specific triggers such as stress or sleep deprivation, but only rarely do seizures occur as a reflex event, in which they are objectively and consistently modulated, precipitated, or inhibited by external sensory stimuli or specific cognitive processes. The seizures triggered by such stimuli and processes in susceptible individuals can have different latencies. Once seizure-suppressing mechanisms fail and a critical mass (the so-called tipping point) of cortical activation is reached, reflex seizures stereotypically manifest with common motor features independent of the physiological network involved. The complexity of stimuli increases from simple sensory to complex cognitive-emotional with increasing age of onset. The topography of physiological networks involved follows the posterior-to-anterior trajectory of brain development, reflecting age-related changes in brain excitability. Reflex seizures and traits probably represent the extremes of a continuum, and understanding of their underlying mechanisms might help to elucidate the transition of normal physiological function to paroxysmal epileptic activity.
Lancet Neurology 2015
Prehospital treatment with levetiracetam plus clonazepam or placebo plus clonazepam in status epilepticus (SAMUKeppra): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial
Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) should be treated quickly. Benzodiazepines are the only drug treatment available so far that is effective before admission to hospital. We assessed whether addition of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam to the benzodiazepine clonazepam would improve prehospital treatment of GCSE.
We did a prehospital, randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled, superiority trial to determine the efficacy of adding intravenous levetiracetam (2·5 g) to clonazepam (1 mg) in treatment of GCSE in 13 emergency medical service centres and 26 hospital departments in France. Randomisation was done at the Paris Descartes Clinical Research Unit with a list of random numbers generated by computer. Adults with convulsions lasting longer than 5 min were randomly assigned (1:1) by prehospital physicians to receive levetiracetam or placebo in combination with clonazepam. All physicians and paramedics were masked to group assignments. If the status epilepticus lasted beyond 5 min after drug injection, a second dose of 1 mg clonazepam was given. The primary outcome was cessation of convulsions within 15 min of drug injection. We analysed the modified intention-to-treat population that had received at least one injection of clonazepam and levetiracetam or placebo, excluding patients without valid consent and those randomised more than once. The trial is registered at EudraCT, number 2007-005782-35.
Between July 20, 2009, and Dec 15, 2012, 107 patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo and 96 were assigned to receive levetiracetam. The trial was discontinued on Dec 15, 2012 when interim analysis showed no evidence of a treatment difference, and 68 patients in each group were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Convulsions stopped at 15 min of drug injection in 57 of 68 patients (84%) receiving clonazepam and placebo and in 50 of 68 patients (74%) receiving clonazepam and levetiracetam (percentage difference −10·3%, 95% CI −24·0 to 3·4). Three deaths, 19 of 47 (40 %) serious adverse events, and 90 of 197 (46%) non-serious events were reported in the levetiracetam group, and four deaths, 28 of 47 (60%) serious events, and 107 of 197 (54%) non-serious events were reported in the placebo group.
The addition of levetiracetam to clonazepam treatment presented no advantage over clonazepam treatment alone in the control of GCSE before admission to hospital. Future prehospital trials could assess the efficacy of clonazepam alone as a first-line treatment in status epilepticus and the efficacy of a second injection of clonazepam with another antiepileptic drug as second-line treatment.
Lancet Neurology 2015
sabato 21 novembre 2015
Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) triggers endogenous protective pathways in distant organs such as the kidney, heart and brain, and represents an exciting new paradigm in neuroprotection. RIC involves repetitive inflation and deflation of a blood pressure cuff on the limb, and is safe and feasible. The exact mechanism of signal transmission from the periphery to the brain is not known, but both humoral factors and an intact nervous system seem to have critical roles. Early-phase clinical trials have already been conducted to test RIC in the prehospital setting in acute ischaemic stroke, and in subarachnoid haemorrhage for the prevention of delayed cerebral ischaemia. Furthermore, two small randomized clinical trials in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis have shown that RIC can reduce recurrence of stroke and have neuroprotective activity. RIC represents a highly practical and translatable therapy for acute, subacute, and chronic neurological diseases with an ischaemic or inflammatory basis. In this Review, we consider the principles and mechanisms of RIC, evidence from preclinical models and clinical trials that RIC is beneficial in neurological disease, and how the procedure might be used in the future in disorders such as vascular cognitive impairment and traumatic brain injury.
Nature Reviews Neurology 2015