sabato 30 gennaio 2016

Mitochondrial DNA Depletion in Respiratory Chain–Deficient Parkinson Disease Neurons


To determine the extent of respiratory chain abnormalities and investigate the contribution of mtDNA to the loss of respiratory chain complexes (CI–IV) in the substantia nigra (SN) of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) patients at the single-neuron level.


Multiple-label immunofluorescence was applied to postmortem sections of 10 IPD patients and 10 controls to quantify the abundance of CI–IV subunits (NDUFB8 or NDUFA13, SDHA, UQCRC2, and COXI) and mitochondrial transcription factors (TFAM and TFB2M) relative to mitochondrial mass (porin and GRP75) in dopaminergic neurons. To assess the involvement of mtDNA in respiratory chain deficiency in IPD, SN neurons, isolated with laser-capture microdissection, were assayed for mtDNA deletions, copy number, and presence of transcription/replication-associated 7S DNA employing a triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.


Whereas mitochondrial mass was unchanged in single SN neurons from IPD patients, we observed a significant reduction in the abundances of CI and II subunits. At the single-cell level, CI and II deficiencies were correlated in patients. The CI deficiency concomitantly occurred with low abundances of the mtDNA transcription factors TFAM and TFB2M, which also initiate transcription-primed mtDNA replication. Consistent with this, real-time PCR analysis revealed fewer transcription/replication-associated mtDNA molecules and an overall reduction in mtDNA copy number in patients. This effect was more pronounced in single IPD neurons with severe CI deficiency.


Respiratory chain dysfunction in IPD neurons not only involves CI, but also extends to CII. These deficiencies are possibly a consequence of the interplay between nDNA and mtDNA-encoded factors mechanistically connected via TFAM. 
Ann Neurol 2016

CYP46A1, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol degradation, is neuroprotective in Huntington’s disease

Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (Exp-HTT) leading to degeneration of striatal neurons. Altered brain cholesterol homeostasis has been implicated in Huntington’s disease, with increased accumulation of cholesterol in striatal neurons yet reduced levels of cholesterol metabolic precursors. To elucidate these two seemingly opposing dysregulations, we investigated the expression of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1), the neuronal-specific and rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol conversion to 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). CYP46A1 protein levels were decreased in the putamen, but not cerebral cortex samples, of post-mortem Huntington’s disease patients when compared to controls.Cyp46A1 mRNA and CYP46A1 protein levels were also decreased in the striatum of the R6/2 Huntington’s disease mouse model and in SThdhQ111 cell lines. In vivo, in a wild-type context, knocking down CYP46A1 expression in the striatum, via an adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of selective shCYP46A1, reproduced the Huntington’s disease phenotype, with spontaneous striatal neuron degeneration and motor deficits, as assessed by rotarod. In vitro, CYP46A1 restoration protected SThdhQ111 and Exp-HTT-expressing striatal neurons in culture from cell death. In the R6/2 Huntington’s disease mouse model, adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of CYP46A1 into the striatum decreased neuronal atrophy, decreased the number, intensity level and size of Exp-HTT aggregates and improved motor deficits, as assessed by rotarod and clasping behavioural tests. Adeno-associated virus-CYP46A1 infection in R6/2 mice also restored levels of cholesterol and lanosterol and increased levels of desmosterol. In vitro, lanosterol and desmosterol were found to protect striatal neurons expressing Exp-HTT from death. We conclude that restoring CYP46A1 activity in the striatum promises a new therapeutic approach in Huntington’s disease.

Brain  2016

LYRM7 mutations cause a multifocal cavitating leukoencephalopathy with distinct MRI appearance

This study focused on the molecular characterization of patients with leukoencephalopathy associated with a specific biochemical defect of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III, and explores the impact of a distinct magnetic resonance imaging pattern of leukoencephalopathy to detect biallelic mutations inLYRM7 in patients with biochemically unclassified leukoencephalopathy. ‘Targeted resequencing’ of a custom panel including genes coding for mitochondrial proteins was performed in patients with complex III deficiency without a molecular genetic diagnosis. Based on brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in these patients, we selected additional patients from a database of unclassified leukoencephalopathies who were scanned for mutations in LYRM7 by Sanger sequencing. Targeted sequencing revealed homozygous mutations in LYRM7, encoding mitochondrial LYR motif-containing protein 7, in four patients from three unrelated families who had a leukoencephalopathy and complex III deficiency. Two subjects harboured previously unreported variants predicted to be damaging, while two siblings carried an already reported pathogenic homozygous missense change. Sanger sequencing performed in the second cohort of patients revealed LYRM7 mutations in three additional patients, who were selected on the basis of the magnetic resonance imaging pattern. All patients had a consistent magnetic resonance imaging pattern of progressive signal abnormalities with multifocal small cavitations in the periventricular and deep cerebral white matter. Early motor development was delayed in half of the patients. All patients but one presented with subacute neurological deterioration in infancy or childhood, preceded by a febrile infection, and most patients had repeated episodes of subacute encephalopathy with motor regression, irritability and stupor or coma resulting in major handicap or death. LYRM7 protein was strongly reduced in available samples from patients; decreased complex III holocomplex was observed in fibroblasts from a patient carrying a splice site variant; functional studies in yeast confirmed the pathogenicity of two novel mutations. Mutations in LYRM7 were previously found in a single patient with a severe form of infantile onset encephalopathy. We provide new molecular, clinical, and neuroimaging data allowing us to characterize more accurately the molecular spectrum ofLYRM7 mutations highlighting that a distinct and recognizable magnetic resonance imaging pattern is related to mutations in this gene. Inter- and intrafamilial variability exists and we observed one patient who was asymptomatic by the age of 6 years.

Brain 2016

Assessment of Eating Behavior Disturbance and Associated Neural Networks in Frontotemporal Dementia

Importance  Abnormal eating behaviors are common in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), yet their exact prevalence, severity, and underlying biological mechanisms are not understood.
Objective  To define the severity of abnormal eating behavior and sucrose preference and their neural correlates in patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and semantic dementia.
Design, Setting, and Participants  Forty-nine patients with dementia (19 with bvFTD, 15 with semantic dementia, and 15 with Alzheimer disease) were recruited, and their eating behavior was compared with that of 25 healthy controls. The study was conducted from November 1, 2013, through May 31, 2015, and data analyzed from June 1 to August 31, 2015.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Patients participated in an ad libitum breakfast test meal, and their total caloric intake and food preferences were measured. Changes in eating behavior were also measured using the Appetite and Eating Habits Questionnaire (APEHQ) and the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory (CBI). Sucrose preference was tested by measuring liking ratings of 3 desserts of varying sucrose content (A: 26%, B: 39%, C: 60%). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of whole-brain 3-T high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the gray matter density changes across groups and their relations to eating behaviors.
Results  Mean (SD) ages of patients in all 4 groups ranged from 62 (8.3) to 66 (8.4) years. At the ad libitum breakfast test meal, all patients with bvFTD had increased total caloric intake (mean, 1344 calories) compared with the Alzheimer disease (mean, 710 calories), semantic dementia (mean, 573 calories), and control groups (mean, 603 calories) (P < .001). Patients with bvFTD and semantic dementia had a strong sucrose preference compared with the other groups. Increased caloric intake correlated with atrophy in discrete neural networks that differed between patients with bvFTD and semantic dementia but included the cingulate cortices, thalami, and cerebellum in patients with bvFTD, with the addition of the orbitofrontal cortices and nucleus accumbens in patients with semantic dementia. A distributed network of neural correlates was associated with sucrose preference in patients with FTD.
Conclusions and Relevance  Marked hyperphagia is restricted to bvFTD, present in all patients with this diagnosis, and supports its diagnostic value. Differing neural networks control eating behavior in patients with bvFTD and semantic dementia and are likely responsible for the differences seen, with a similar network controlling sucrose preference. These networks share structures that control cognitive-reward, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and visual modulation of eating behavior. Delineating the neural networks involved in mediating these changes in eating behavior may enable treatment of these features in patients with complex medical needs and aid in our understanding of structures that control eating behavior in patients with FTD and healthy individuals.

JAAMA Neurology 20116

Stent Retrievers for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

Importance  Stent retrievers are a promising alternative for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Several recently completed clinical trials have examined the use of stent retrievers with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) compared with rtPA alone.
Objective  To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to quantify the benefits and risks of using stent retrievers in addition to rtPA for the treatment of AIS.
Data Sources  The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials databases were searched from inception to July 2015 for the keywords stent*, retriev*, Solitaire, Trevo, Revive, and stroke. Trial registries were also searched. A total of 326 publications were identified and 213 potentially relevant records were screened.
Study Selection  Randomized clinical trials that examined stent retrievers with rtPA vs rtPA alone were included in the meta-analysis.
Data Extraction and Synthesis  Two independent reviewers extracted study data and performed quality assessment using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs), risk differences (RDs), and numbers needed to treat.
Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving functional independence (defined as a score of 0-2 on the modified Rankin Scale, with 0 indicating no disability and 6 indicating death) at 90 days. Risks of all-cause mortality, intracranial hemorrhage, and parenchymal hematoma at 90 days were also assessed.
Results  Five randomized clinical trials met our inclusion criteria (n = 1287 patients). Patients randomized to stent-retriever therapy with rtPA had significantly improved rates of functional independence at 90 days compared with those randomized to rtPA alone (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.48-1.99; RD, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.13-0.25). When data were pooled across trials, the effect of stent-retriever therapy on all-cause mortality at 90 days was inconclusive (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.60-1.11; RD, −0.04; 95% CI, −0.08 to 0.1). There were similarly no detectable differences in the risks of intracranial hemorrhage (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.67-1.97; RD, 0.00; 95% CI, −0.02 to 0.03) or parenchymal hematoma (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.71-1.94; RD, 0.01; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.04), although the 95% CIs were wide. Fixed-effects sensitivity analyses produced similar results for all outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance  The use of stent retrievers in conjunction with rtPA vs rtPA alone is associated with significant improvement of functional independence 90 days after AIS.

JAMA Neurology 2016

MRI criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines

In patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome, MRI can support and substitute clinical information in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis by showing disease dissemination in space and time and by helping to exclude disorders that can mimic multiple sclerosis. MRI criteria were first included in the diagnostic work-up for multiple sclerosis in 2001, and since then several modifications to the criteria have been proposed in an attempt to simplify lesion-count models for showing disease dissemination in space, change the timing of MRI scanning to show dissemination in time, and increase the value of spinal cord imaging. Since the last update of these criteria, new data on the use of MRI to establish dissemination in space and time have become available, and MRI technology has improved. State-of-the-art MRI findings in these patients were discussed in a MAGNIMS workshop, the goal of which was to provide an evidence-based and expert-opinion consensus on proposed modifications to MRI criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Lancet Neurology 2016

Phenytoin for neuroprotection in patients with acute optic neuritis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial


Acute demyelinating optic neuritis, a common feature of multiple sclerosis, can damage vision through neurodegeneration in the optic nerve and in its fibres in the retina. Inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels is neuroprotective in preclinical models. In this study we aimed to establish whether sodium-channel inhibition with phenytoin is neuroprotective in patient with acute optic neuritis.


We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial at two UK academic hospitals in London and Sheffield. Patients with acute optic neuritis aged 18–60 years, presenting within 2 weeks of onset, with visual acuity of 6/9 or worse, were randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation via a web-based service to oral phenytoin (maintenance dose 4 mg/kg per day if randomised before or on July 16, 2013, and 6 mg/kg per day if randomised on or after July 17, 2013) or placebo for 3 months, stratified by time from onset, centre, previous multiple sclerosis diagnosis, use of disease-modifying treatment, and use of corticosteroids for acute optic neuritis. Participants and treating and assessing physicians were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in the affected eye at 6 months, adjusted for fellow-eye RNFL thickness at baseline, analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomised participants who were followed up at 6 months. Safety was analysed in the entire population, including those who were lost to follow-up. The trial is registered with, number NCT 01451593.


We recruited 86 participants between Feb 3, 2012, and May 22, 2014 (42 assigned to phenytoin and 44 to placebo). 29 were assigned to phenytoin 4 mg/kg and 13 to phenytoin 6 mg/kg. Five participants were lost to follow-up, so the primary analysis included 81 participants (39 assigned to phenytoin and 42 to placebo). Mean 6-month RNFL thickness in the affected eye at 6 months was 81·46 μm (SD 16·27) in the phenytoin group (a mean decrease of 16·69 μm [SD 13·73] from baseline) versus 74·29 μm (15·14) in the placebo group (a mean decrease of 23·79 μm [13·97] since baseline; adjusted 6-month difference of 7·15 μm [95% CI 1·08–13·22]; p=0·021), corresponding to a 30% reduction in the extent of RNFL loss with phenytoin compared with placebo. Treatment was well tolerated, with five (12%) of 42 patients having a serious adverse event in the phenytoin group (only one, severe rash, was attributable to phenytoin) compared with two (5%) of 44 in the placebo group.


These findings support the concept of neuroprotection with phenytoin in patients with acute optic neuritis at concentrations at which it blocks voltage-gated sodium channels selectively. Further investigation in larger clinical trials in optic neuritis and in relapsing multiple sclerosis is warranted.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: distinct and overlapping changes in eating behaviour and metabolism

Metabolic changes incorporating fluctuations in weight, insulin resistance, and cholesterol concentrations have been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. Whether these changes result from the neurodegenerative process affecting brain regions necessary for metabolic regulation or whether they drive the degenerative process is unknown. Emerging evidence from epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and experimental studies emphasises a range of changes in eating behaviours and metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS, metabolic changes have been linked to disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, changes in eating behaviour that affect metabolism have been incorporated into the diagnostic criteria for FTD, which has some clinical and pathological overlap with ALS. Whether the distinct and shared metabolic and eating changes represent a component of the proposed spectrum of the two diseases is an intriguing possibility. Moreover, future research should aim to unravel the complex connections between eating, metabolism, and neurodegeneration in ALS and FTD, and aim to understand the potential for targeting modifiable risk factors in disease development and progression.

Lancet Neurology 2016

DGAT2 Mutation in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Early-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. We examined a Korean family in which two individuals had an autosomal dominant axonal CMT with early onset, sensory ataxia, tremor, and slow disease progression. Pedigree analysis and exome sequencing identified a de novo missense mutation (p.Y223H) in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) gene. DGAT2 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial-associated membrane protein, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, which catalyzes the final step of the triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis pathway. The patient showed consistently decreased serum TG levels, and over-expression of the mutant DGAT2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of mouse motor neuron cells. Moreover, the variant form of human DGAT2 inhibited the axonal branching in the peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We suggest that mutation of DGAT2 is the novel underlying cause of an autosomal dominant axonal CMT2 neuropathy. This study will help provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of axonal CMT and contribute to the molecular diagnostics of peripheral neuropathies.

Human Mutation 2016

Biallelic Truncating Mutations in TANGO2 Cause Infancy-Onset Recurrent Metabolic Crises with Encephalocardiomyopathy

Molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is challenging because of extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity. By exome sequencing, we identified three different biallelic truncating mutations in TANGO2 in three unrelated individuals with infancy-onset episodic metabolic crises characterized by encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias, and laboratory findings suggestive of a defect in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Over the course of the disease, all individuals developed global brain atrophy with cognitive impairment and pyramidal signs. TANGO2(transport and Golgi organization 2) encodes a protein with a putative function in redistribution of Golgi membranes into the endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila and a mitochondrial localization has been confirmed in mice. Investigation of palmitate-dependent respiration in mutant fibroblasts showed evidence of a functional defect in mitochondrial β-oxidation. Our results establish TANGO2 deficiency as a clinically recognizable cause of pediatric disease with multi-organ involvement.

AJHG 2016

An investigation into the psychosocial effects of the postictal state

Objective: To determine whether postictal cognitive and behavioral impairment (PCBI) is independently associated with specific aspects of a patient's psychosocial health in those with epilepsy and nonepileptic events.
Methods: We used the University of Calgary's Comprehensive Epilepsy Clinic prospective cohort database to identify patients reporting PCBI. The cohort was stratified into those diagnosed with epilepsy or nonepileptic events at first clinic visit. Univariate comparisons and stepwise multiple logistic regression with backward elimination method were used to identify factors associated with PCBI for individuals with epilepsy and those with nonepileptic events. We then determined if PCBI was independently associated with depression and the use of social assistance when controlling for known risk factors.
Results: We identified 1,776 patients, of whom 1,510 (85%) had epilepsy and 235 had nonepileptic events (13%). PCBI was independently associated with depression in those with epilepsy (odds ratio [OR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–2.83; p = 0.03) and with the need for social assistance in those with nonepileptic events (OR 4.81; 95% CI 2.02–11.42; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: PCBI appears to be significantly associated with differing psychosocial outcomes depending on the patient's initial diagnosis. Although additional research is necessary to examine causality, our results suggest that depression and employment concerns appear to be particularly important factors for patients with PCBI and epilepsy and nonepileptic attacks, respectively.

Neurology 2016

Article Risk factors for probable REM sleep behavior disorder A community-based study

Objective: To examine risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a large-scale community-based study.
Methods: This community-based study included 12,784 Chinese adults (10,556 men and 2,228 women, aged 24 years or older) who were free of Parkinson disease and dementia in 2012. Probable RBD (pRBD) status was determined by a validated questionnaire (Chinese RBD questionnaire–Hong Kong) in 2012. Potential risk factors—including age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, physical activity, obesity, consumption of tea (surrogate for caffeine intake) and alcohol, serum concentrations of lipids and glucose, and chronic disease status—were assessed in 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and to test differences in prevalence of pRBD across exposures.
Results: Prevalence of pRBD was 5.9% in men and 4.1% in women. In the fully adjusted model, risk factors that were significantly associated with a higher risk of having pRBD included lower education level, coal mining and other blue collar occupation, lower physical activity level, diabetes or prediabetes, lower body mass index, head injury, higher low-density lipoprotein level, and chronic olfactory and taste dysfunction. In sensitivity analyses, restricting to pRBD cases with symptom onset within 1 year or excluding coal miners or those with history of head injury generated similar results.
Conclusion: We found several potential risk factors for pRBD, including socioeconomic status, head injury, olfactory and taste dysfunction, and various cardiovascular risk factors. Future prospective studies to establish the temporal relationship between these potential risk factors and RBD are warranted.

Neurology 2016

Comparative efficacy of fingolimod vs natalizumab A French multicenter observational study


Objective: To compare natalizumab and fingolimod on both clinical and MRI outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) from 27 multiple sclerosis centers participating in the French follow-up cohort Observatoire of Multiple Sclerosis.
Methods: Patients with RRMS included in the study were aged from 18 to 65 years with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 0–5.5 and an available brain MRI performed within the year before treatment initiation. The data were collected for 326 patients treated with natalizumab and 303 with fingolimod. The statistical analysis was performed using 2 different methods: logistic regression and propensity scores (inverse probability treatment weighting).
Results: The confounder-adjusted proportion of patients with at least one relapse within the first and second year of treatment was lower in natalizumab-treated patients compared to the fingolimod group (21.1% vs 30.4% at first year,p = 0.0092; and 30.9% vs 41.7% at second year, p = 0.0059) and supported the trend observed in nonadjusted analysis (21.2% vs 27.1% at 1 year, p = 0.0775). Such statistically significant associations were also observed for gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions and new T2 lesions at both 1 year (Gd-enhancing lesions: 9.3% vs 29.8%, p < 0.0001; new T2 lesions: 10.6% vs 29.6%, p < 0.0001) and 2 years (Gd-enhancing lesions: 9.1% vs 22.1%, p = 0.0025; new T2 lesions: 16.9% vs 34.1%, p = 0.0010) post treatment initiation.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest the superiority of natalizumab over fingolimod to prevent relapses and new T2 and Gd-enhancing lesions at 1 and 2 years.
Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with RRMS, natalizumab decreases the proportion of patients with at least one relapse within the first year of treatment compared to fingolimod.

Neurology 2016

sabato 23 gennaio 2016

Randomized trials of endovascular therapy for stroke — impact on stroke care

Five trials that investigated the efficacy of modern endovascular therapies for stroke — MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, SWIFT PRIME, EXTEND IA and REVASCAT — have been published within the past year, changing the landscape of acute stroke management. The trials used a variety of imaging modalities and combinations of treatment approaches, including the mandatory use of intravenous thrombolysis before the initiation of endovascular therapy. All five trials provided strong evidence to support the use of thrombectomy that is initiated within 6 h of stroke onset, prompting worldwide changes in the guidelines for management of acute stroke by endovascular treatment. The benefits of endovascular therapy were observed irrespective of a patient's age, their NIH Stroke Scale score, or whether they received intravenous thrombolysis. In this article, we review the main findings of these recent trials, focusing on key aspects of their designs, and discuss their impact on the future management of patients with acute stroke that results from large-vessel occlusion. We discuss the values of noncontrast CT ASPECTS, perfusion imaging and angiography for selecting patients to receive endovascular interventions. We also consider the role of thrombectomy beyond 6 h after stroke onset, and in patients with posterior circulation strokes.

Nature Reviews Neurology 2016

CCR5 blockade for neuroinflammatory diseases — beyond control of HIV

Chemokine receptors have been implicated in a wide range of CNS inflammatory diseases and have important roles in the recruitment and positioning of immune cells within tissues. Among them, the chemokine (C–C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) can be targeted by maraviroc, a readily available and well-tolerated drug that was developed for the treatment of HIV. Correlative evidence implicates the CCR5–chemokine axis in multiple sclerosis, Rasmussen encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and infectious diseases, such as cerebral malaria and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. On the basis of this evidence, we postulate in this Review that CCR5 antagonists, such as maraviroc, offer neuroprotective benefits in settings in which CCR5 promotes deleterious neuroinflammation, particularly in diseases in which CD8+ T cells seem to play a pivotal role.

Nature Reviews Neurology 2016

Management of psychiatric and neurological comorbidities in epilepsy

The treatment of epileptic seizure disorders is not restricted to the achievement of seizure-freedom, but must also include the management of comorbid medical, neurological, psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities. Psychiatric and neurological comorbidities are relatively common and often co-exist in people with epilepsy (PWE). For example, depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbidities in PWE, and they are particularly common in PWE who also have a neurological comorbidity, such as migraine, stroke, traumatic brain injury or dementia. Moreover, psychiatric and neurological comorbodities often have a more severe impact on the quality of life in patients with treatment-resistant focal epilepsy than do the actual seizures. Epilepsy and psychiatric and neurological comorbidities have a complex relationship, which has a direct bearing on the management of both seizures and the comorbidities: the comorbidities have to be factored into the selection of antiepileptic drugs, and the susceptibility to seizures has to be considered when choosing the drugs to treat comorbidities. The aim of this Review is to highlight the complex relationship between epilepsy and common psychiatric and neurological comorbidities, and provide an overview of how treatment strategies for epilepsy can positively and negatively affect these comorbidities and vice versa.

Nature Reviews Neurology 2016

Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy vs No Therapy in Mild to Moderate Parkinson Disease A Randomized Clinical Trial

Importance  It is unclear whether physiotherapy and occupational therapy are clinically effective and cost-effective in Parkinson disease (PD).
Objective  To perform a large pragmatic randomized clinical trial to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy and occupational therapy in PD.
Design, Setting, and Participants  The PD REHAB Trial was a multicenter, open-label, parallel group, controlled efficacy trial. A total of 762 patients with mild to moderate PD were recruited from 38 sites across the United Kingdom. Recruitment took place between October 2009 and June 2012, with 15 months of follow-up.
Interventions  Participants with limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) were randomized to physiotherapy and occupational therapy or no therapy.
Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale score at 3 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (assessed by Parkinson Disease Questionnaire–39 and EuroQol-5D); adverse events; and caregiver quality of life. Outcomes were assessed before trial entry and then 3, 9, and 15 months after randomization.
Results  Of the 762 patients included in the study (mean [SD] age, 70 [9.1] years), 381 received physiotherapy and occupational therapy and 381 received no therapy. At 3 months, there was no difference between groups in NEADL total score (difference, 0.5 points; 95% CI, −0.7 to 1.7; P = .41) or Parkinson Disease Questionnaire–39 summary index (0.007 points; 95% CI, −1.5 to 1.5; P = .99). The EuroQol-5D quotient was of borderline significance in favor of therapy (−0.03; 95% CI, −0.07 to −0.002; P = .04). The median therapist contact time was 4 visits of 58 minutes over 8 weeks. Repeated-measures analysis showed no difference in NEADL total score, but Parkinson Disease Questionnaire–39 summary index (diverging 1.6 points per annum; 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.62; P = .005) and EuroQol-5D score (0.02; 95% CI, 0.00007 to 0.03; P = .04) showed small differences in favor of therapy. There was no difference in adverse events.
Conclusions and Relevance  Physiotherapy and occupational therapy were not associated with immediate or medium-term clinically meaningful improvements in ADL or quality of life in mild to moderate PD. This evidence does not support the use of low-dose, patient-centered, goal-directed physiotherapy and occupational therapy in patients in the early stages of PD. Future research should explore the development and testing of more structured and intensive physical and occupational therapy programs in patients with all stages of PD.

JAMA Neurology 2016

Clinical Characteristics and Functional Motor Outcomes of Enterovirus 71 Neurological Disease in Children

Importance  Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes a spectrum of neurological complications with significant morbidity and mortality. Further understanding of the characteristics of EV71-related neurological disease, factors related to outcome, and potential responsiveness to treatments is important in developing therapeutic guidelines.
Objective  To further characterize EV71-related neurological disease and neurological outcome in children.
Design, Setting, and Participants  Prospective 2-hospital (The Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network) inpatient study of 61 children with enterovirus-related neurological disease during a 2013 outbreak of EV71 in Sydney, Australia. The dates of our analysis were January 1, to June 30, 2013.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Clinical, neuroimaging, laboratory, and pathological characteristics, together with treatment administered and functional motor outcomes, were assessed.
Results  Among 61 patients, there were 4 precipitous deaths (7%), despite resuscitation at presentation. Among 57 surviving patients, the age range was 0.3 to 5.2 years (median age, 1.5 years), and 36 (63%) were male. Fever (100% [57 of 57]), myoclonic jerks (86% [49 of 57]), ataxia (54% [29 of 54]), and vomiting (54% [29 of 54]) were common initial clinical manifestations. In 57 surviving patients, EV71 neurological disease included encephalomyelitis in 23 (40%), brainstem encephalitis in 20 (35%), encephalitis in 6 (11%), acute flaccid paralysis in 4 (7%), and autonomic dysregulation with pulmonary edema in 4 (7%). Enterovirus RNA was more commonly identified in feces (42 of 44 [95%]), rectal swabs (35 of 37 [95%]), and throat swabs (33 of 39 [85%]) rather than in cerebrospinal fluid (10 of 41 [24%]). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed characteristic increased T2-weighted signal in the dorsal pons and spinal cord. All 4 patients with pulmonary edema (severe disease) demonstrated dorsal brainstem restricted diffusion (odds ratio, 2; 95% CI, 1-4; P = .001). Brainstem or motor dysfunction had resolved in 44 of 57 (77%) at 2 months and in 51 of 57 (90%) at 12 months. Focal paresis was evident in 23 of 57 (40%) at presentation and was the most common persisting clinical and functional problem at 12 months (observed in 5 of 6 patients), with 1 patient also requiring invasive ventilation. Patients initially seen with acute flaccid paralysis or pulmonary edema had significantly greater frequencies of motor dysfunction at follow-up compared with patients initially seen with other syndromes (odds ratio, 15; 95% CI, 3-79; P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance  Enterovirus 71 may cause serious neurological disease in young patients. The distinct clinicoradiological syndromes, predominantly within the spinal cord and brainstem, enable rapid recognition within evolving outbreaks. Long-term functional neurological morbidity is associated with paresis linked to involvement of gray matter in the brainstem or spinal cord.

JAMA Neurology 2016