sabato 24 giugno 2017
Importance Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies and leukodystrophies are increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders with new diagnostic approaches and potential treatments. In the new era of genomics, the challenging interpretation of individual genetic variations requires an accurate phenotypic description and classification. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based approaches have been proposed to improve the diagnostic process of adult-onset leukoencephalopathies. Cerebral calcifications, when associated with white matter hyperintensities, are of major importance in the decision-making process to focus the diagnosis among the diversity of rare causes.
Observations This literature review demonstrated that the morphologic features and topography of the calcifications observed in a careful combined analysis of computed tomographic and MRI scans may help indicate the diagnosis of adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies. Vascular genetic leukoencephalopathies are an important cause of leukoencephalopathy with calcifications. Among them, COL4A1-related disorders are frequently associated with spotlike calcifications in the basal ganglia. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids, a probably underestimated disorder, is associated with a specific pattern of calcifications: small, symmetric, sparing the basal ganglia, and a stepping stone appearance in the frontal pericallosal region. Moreover, disorders primarily associated with basal ganglia calcifications, such as primary familial brain calcifications, can be associated with marked leukoencephalopathy.
Conclusions and Relevance The number of identified causes of adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies has recently increased. A diagnostic algorithm should take into account the pattern of calcifications to better target the genetic analyses.
JAMA Neurology 2017
Importance The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction.
Objective To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign.
Design, Setting, and Participants SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial. Participants included consecutive patients with primary ICH who underwent a CTA within 8 hours from onset at 59 sites from May 15, 2011, through December 19, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1 to August 31, 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures Patients in ATACH-II were randomized to intensive (systolic BP target, <140 mm Hg) vs standard (systolic BP target, <180 mm Hg) BP reduction within 4.5 hours from onset. Expansion of ICH was defined as hematoma growth of greater than 33%, and an unfavorable outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 4 or greater (range, 0-6). The association among BP reduction, ICH expansion, and outcome was investigated with multivariable logistic regression.
Results A total of 133 patients (83 men [62.4%] and 50 women [37.6%]; mean [SD] age, 61.9 [13.1] years) were included. Of these, 53 (39.8%) had a spot sign, and 24 of 123 without missing data (19.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The spot sign was associated with expansion with sensitivity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.74) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.72). After adjustment for potential confounders, intensive BP treatment was not associated with a significant reduction of ICH expansion (relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.51; P = .74) or improved outcome (relative risk of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53-2.91; P = .62) in spot sign–positive patients.
Conclusions and Relevance The predictive performance of the spot sign for ICH expansion was lower than in prior reports from single-center studies. No evidence suggested that patients with ICH and a spot sign specifically benefit from intensive BP reduction.
Jama Neurology 2017
Anterior pallidal deep brain stimulation for Tourette's syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome.
In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18–60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France. Enrolled patients received surgery to implant bilateral electrodes for aGPi DBS; 3 months later they were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio with a block size of eight; computer-generated pairwise randomisation according to order of enrolment) to receive either active or sham stimulation for the subsequent 3 months in a double-blind fashion. All patients then received open-label active stimulation for the subsequent 6 months. Patients and clinicians assessing outcomes were masked to treatment allocation; an unmasked clinician was responsible for stimulation parameter programming, with intensity set below the side-effect threshold. The primary endpoint was difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score between the beginning and end of the 3 month double-blind period, as assessed with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test in all randomly allocated patients who received active or sham stimulation during the double-blind period. We assessed safety in all patients who were enrolled and received surgery for aGPi DBS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00478842.
Between Dec 6, 2007, and Dec 13, 2012, we enrolled 19 patients. We randomly assigned 17 (89%) patients, with 16 completing blinded assessments (seven [44%] in the active stimulation group and nine [56%] in the sham stimulation group). We noted no significant difference in YGTSS score change between the beginning and the end of the 3 month double-blind period between groups (active group median YGTSS score 68·5 [IQR 34·0 to 83·5] at the beginning and 62·5 [51·5 to 72·0] at the end, median change 1·1% [IQR −23·9 to 38·1]; sham group 73·0 [69·0 to 79·0] and 79·0 [59·0 to 81·5], median change 0·0% [–10·6 to 4·8]; p=0·39). 15 serious adverse events (three in patients who withdrew before stimulation and six each in the active and sham stimulation groups) occurred in 13 patients (three who withdrew before randomisation, four in the active group, and six in the sham group), with infections in DBS hardware in four patients (two who withdrew before randomisation, one in the sham stimulation group, and one in the active stimulation group). Other serious adverse events included one electrode misplacement (active stimulation group), one episode of depressive signs (active stimulation group), and three episodes of increased tic severity and anxiety (two in the sham stimulation group and one in the active stimulation group).
3 months of aGPi DBS is insufficient to decrease tic severity for patients with Tourette's syndrome. Future research is needed to investigate the efficacy of aGPi DBS for patients over longer periods with optimal stimulation parameters and to identify potential predictors of the therapeutic response.
Lancet Neurology 2017
sabato 17 giugno 2017
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is a multistep procedure that enables destruction of the immune system and its reconstitution from haematopoietic stem cells. Originally developed for the treatment of haematological malignancies, the procedure has been adapted for the treatment of severe immune-mediated disorders. Results from ~20 years of research make a compelling case for selective use of AHSCT in patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS), and for controlled trials. Immunological studies support the notion that AHSCT causes qualitative immune resetting, and have provided insight into the mechanisms that might underlie the powerful treatment effects that last well beyond recovery of immune cell numbers. Indeed, studies have demonstrated that AHSCT can entirely suppress MS disease activity for 4–5 years in 70–80% of patients, a rate that is higher than those achieved with any other therapies for MS. Treatment-related mortality, which was 3.6% in studies before 2005, has decreased to 0.3% in studies since 2005. Current evidence indicates that the patients who are most likely to benefit from and tolerate AHSCT are young, ambulatory and have inflammatory MS activity. Clinical trials are required to rigorously test the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of AHSCT against highly active MS drugs.
Nature Reviews Neurology 2017
ADS-5102 (Amantadine) Extended-Release Capsules for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson Disease (EASE LID Study) A Randomized Clinical Trial
Importance Medical treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson disease (PD) is an unmet need.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release 274-mg capsules for treatment of LID in patients with PD.
Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted between May 7, 2014, and July 22, 2015, at 44 North American sites among patients with PD treated with levodopa who experienced at least 1 hour of troublesome dyskinesia per day with at least mild functional impact.
Interventions Patients were randomized to receive placebo or 274 mg of ADS-5102 administered orally at bedtime for up to 25 weeks.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary efficacy analysis was the change from baseline to week 12 in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale total score for ADS-5102 vs placebo in the modified intent-to-treat population. OFF time (amount of time the PD medication is not controlling motor symptoms) was a key secondary end point. Safety analyses included all patients who received the study drug (ADS-5102 or placebo).
Results A total of 189 patients were screened, and 126 were randomized; the modified intent-to-treat population included 121 patients (51 women and 70 men; mean [SD] age, 64.7 [9.1] years). At week 12, the least-squares mean (SE) change in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale score was –15.9 (1.6) for ADS-5102 (n = 63) and –8.0 (1.6) for placebo (n = 58) (treatment difference, –7.9; 95% CI, –12.5 to –3.3; P < .001). OFF time decreased by a mean (SE) of 0.6 (0.3) hours for ADS-5102 and increased by 0.3 (0.3) hours for placebo (treatment difference, –0.9 hours; 95% CI, –1.6 to –0.2; P = .02). Common adverse events for ADS-5102 vs placebo included visual hallucinations (15 [23.8%] vs 1 [1.7%]), peripheral edema (15 [23.8%] vs 0), and dizziness (14 [22.2%] vs 0). Adverse events led to treatment discontinuation for 13 patients receiving ADS-5102 (20.6%) vs 4 patients receiving placebo (6.9%).
Conclusions and Relevance ADS-5102, 274 mg at bedtime, may be an effective treatment for LID. An additional benefit is reduced OFF time. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an oral treatment reducing both LID and OFF time in patients with PD with dyskinesia.
Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02136914
JAMA Neurology 2017