sabato 30 dicembre 2017
NEWS FROM THE WORLD- Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy Treated With Established and New Antiepileptic Drugs A 30-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study
Importance A study published in 2000 showed that more than one-third of adults with epilepsy have inadequate control of seizures with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This study evaluates overall treatment outcomes in light of the introduction of more than 1 dozen new AEDs in the past 2 decades.
Objective To assess long-term treatment outcome in patients with newly diagnosed and treated epilepsy.
Design, Setting, and Participants This longitudinal observational cohort study was conducted at the Epilepsy Unit of the Western Infirmary in Glasgow, Scotland. A total of 1795 individuals who were newly treated for epilepsy with AEDs between July 1, 1982, and October 31, 2012, were included in this analysis. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (until October 31, 2014) or until death, whichever came sooner. Data analysis was completed between March 2015 and May 2016.
Exposures Treatment with antiepileptic drugs for patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy.
Main Outcomes and Measures Seizure control was assessed at the end of the study period. Probability of achieving 1-year seizure freedom was estimated for each AED regimen prescribed. Multivariable models assessed the associations between risk factors and AED treatment outcome after adjustments were made for demographic and clinical characteristics.
Results Of the 1795 included patients, 964 (53.7%) were male; the median age was 33 years (range, 9-93 years). At the end of the study period, 1144 patients (63.7%) had been seizure free for the previous year or longer. Among those achieving 1-year seizure freedom, 993 (86.8%) were taking monotherapy and 1028 (89.9%) had achieved seizure control with the first or second AED regimens. Of the total patient pool, 906 (50.5%) remained seizure free for 1 year or longer with the initial AED. If this AED failed, the second and third regimens provided an additional 11.6% and 4.4% likelihoods of seizure freedom, respectively. Only 2.12% of patients attained optimal seizure control with subsequent AEDs. Epilepsy that was not successfully controlled with the first AED had 1.73 times greater odds of not responding to treatment for each subsequent medication regimen (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.56-1.91; P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance Despite the availability of many new AEDs with differing mechanisms of action, overall outcomes in newly diagnosed epilepsy have not improved. Most patients who attain control do so with the first or second AED. The probability of achieving seizure freedom diminishes substantially with each subsequent AED regimen tried. More than one-third of patients experience epilepsy that remains uncontrolled.
JAMA Neurology 2017
NEWS FROM THE WORLD- Association of Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy With the Risk of Autistic Traits in Children Exposed to Antiepileptic Drugs In Utero
Importance Strategies to prevent autism in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy are important.
Objective To explore whether folic acid supplementation and folate status in pregnancy are associated with reduced risk of autistic traits owing to in utero AED exposure.
Design, Setting, and Participants The population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study approached Norwegian-speaking women attending routine ultrasonographic examinations from June 1999 through December 31, 2008 (163 844 of 277 702 women refused). No exclusion criteria were applied beyond language. Questionnaires during and after pregnancy, analysis of blood samples, and linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were performed. Children aged 18 to 36 months of women with available information on use of AEDs and of folic acid supplementation (n = 104 946) were included in the analysis from March 1, 2016, through June 13, 2017.
Exposures Maternal folic acid supplementation 4 weeks before to 12 weeks after conception. Plasma folate concentration was analyzed at gestational weeks 17 to 19.
Main Outcomes and Measures Autistic traits were evaluated using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Communication Questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for autistic traits in children by maternal use vs nonuse of folic acid supplements were adjusted for maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Folate concentrations and folic acid doses were associated with the degree of autistic traits.
Results The overall mean (SD) age of the 104 946 mothers of participating children was 29.8 (4.6) years, with complete information available for analysis in 103 868. Mean (SD) age of women with epilepsy who received AED treatment was 29.4 (4.9); women with epilepsy who did not receive AED treatment, 29.1 (4.9); and without epilepsy, 29.8 (4.6) years. In the 335 children exposed to AEDs, the risk for autistic traits was significantly higher at 18 months of age (adjusted OR [AOR], 5.9; 95% CI, 2.2-15.8) and 36 months of age (AOR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.5-24.9) when their mothers had not used folic acid supplements compared with children of mothers who had used supplements. Among women without epilepsy, the corresponding risks were lower at 18 months of age (AOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4) and 36 months of age (AOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-1.9); among the 389 children of women with untreated epilepsy, the corresponding risks were not significant at 18 months of age (AOR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-3.0) and 36 months of age (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.4-16.6). Degree of autistic traits was inversely associated with maternal plasma folate concentrations (β = −0.3; P = .03) and folic acid doses (β = −0.5; P < .001). Concentrations of AEDs were not associated with the degree of autistic traits.
Conclusions and Relevance Risk of autistic traits in children exposed to AEDs in utero may be mitigated by periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folate status. Fertile women using AEDs should take folic acid supplements continuously.
JAMA Neurology 2017
sabato 23 dicembre 2017
NEWS FROM BRESCIA-Neuroanatomical Correlates of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Presymptomatic Granulin Mutation Carriers.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterized by behavioural and language impairment, accompanied by atrophic changes in fronto-temporo-insular cortices. In the presymptomatic phases of genetic FTD, subtle or no volumetric changes have been reported. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents an approach to explore cortical connectivity, and some TMS measures have been demonstrated to be impaired in Granulin (GRN) mutation carriers. We aimed at exploring cross-sectional changes in cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) in the presymptomatic phases of GRN-related FTD, and their relationship with TMS parameters. Nineteen presymptomatic GRN mutation carriers and seventeen age and sex-matched non-carriers underwent 3T MRI scanning and a paired-pulse TMS protocol. The surface-based pipeline of FreeSurfer was applied in order to obtain cortical volumes (CVs), CT and SA measures. Then, between groups differences and correlation with TMS parameters were assessed. GRN carriers showed increased CT and decreased SA of the right parietal lobe, without significant volume changes. TMS parameters of intracortical inhibition and facilitation, which were significantly impaired in presymptomatic GRN mutation carriers, correlated with reduced SA and CV of the right insula. Our results suggest that splitting CV into its two main components could improve the sensitivity when exploring structural brain changes in presymptomatic or early phases of neurodegenerative conditions. TMS parameters might reflect damage within cortical regions reported to be affected early in the conversion to the symptomatic phase of the disease.
Brain Topogr. 2017
Brain Topogr. 2017
NEWS FROM THE WORLD- Effect of Different Doses of Galcanezumab vs Placebo for Episodic Migraine Prevention A Randomized Clinical Trial
Importance Galcanezumab (LY2951742), a monoclonal antibody against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is one of a novel class of new medicines for migraine prevention.
Objective To assess whether at least 1 dose of galcanezumab was superior to placebo for episodic migraine prevention.
Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized clinical trial was conducted in the United States (July 7, 2014, to August 19, 2015) in clinics of 37 licensed physicians with a specialty including, but not limited to, psychiatry, neurology, internal medicine, and primary care. Subcutaneous injections of galcanezumab, 5, 50, 120, or 300 mg, or placebo were given monthly during the 3-month treatment period. A total of 936 patients were assessed; 526 did not meet study entry or baseline criteria and 410 patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or galcanezumab. Analyses were conducted on an intent-to-treat population, which included all patients who were randomized and received at least 1 dose of study drug.
Interventions Short-term migraine treatments were allowed as needed except for opioids or barbiturates.
Main Outcomes and Measures To determine if at least 1 of the 4 doses of galcanezumab tested was superior to placebo for migraine prevention measured by the mean change from baseline in the number of migraine headache days 9 weeks to 12 weeks after randomization.
Results Of the 936 patients assessed, 410 met entry criteria (aged 18-65 years with 4-14 migraine headache days per month and migraine onset prior to age 50 years) and were randomized to receive placebo or galcanezumab.For the primary end point, galcanezumab, 120 mg, significantly reduced migraine headache days compared with placebo (99.6% posterior probability −4.8 days; 90% BCI, −5.4 to −4.2 days vs 95% superiority threshold [Bayesian analysis] −3.7 days; 90% BCI, −4.1 to −3.2 days). Adverse events reported by 5% or more of patients in at least 1 galcanezumab dose group and more frequently than placebo included injection-site pain, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, dysmenorrhea, and nausea.
Conclusions and Relevance Monthly subcutaneous injections of galcanezumab, both 120 mg and 300 mg, demonstrated efficacy (repeated-measures analysis) for the preventive treatment of migraine and support further development in larger phase 3 studies. All dosages were safe and well tolerated for the preventive treatment of episodic migraine.
JAMA Neurology 2017
NEWS FRO THE WORLD- Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert for Parkinson Disease Dementia A Randomized Clinical Trial
Importance Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM DBS) has been proposed as a treatment option for Parkinson disease dementia.
Objective To evaluate the safety and potential symptomatic effects of NBM DBS in patients with Parkinson disease dementia.
Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial evaluated the results of 6 patients with Parkinson disease dementia who were treated with NBM DBS at a neurosurgical referral center in the United Kingdom from October 26, 2012, to July 31, 2015. Eligible patients met the diagnostic criteria for Parkinson disease dementia, had motor fluctuations, were appropriate surgical candidates aside from the coexistence of dementia, were age 35 to 80 years, were able to give informed consent, had a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 21 to 26, had minimal atrophy seen on results of brain magnetic resonance imaging, and lived at home with a caregiver-informant.
Interventions After surgery, patients were assigned to receive either active stimulation (bilateral, low-frequency [20 Hz] NBM DBS) or sham stimulation for 6 weeks, followed by the opposite condition for 6 weeks.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the difference in scores on each item of an abbreviated cognitive battery (California Verbal Learning Test-II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span, verbal fluency, Posner covert attention test, and simple and choice reaction times) between the 2 conditions. Secondary outcomes were exploratory and included differences in scores on standardized measurements of cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Results Surgery and stimulation were well tolerated by all 6 patients (all men; mean [SD] age, 65.2 [10.7] years), with no serious adverse events during the trial. No consistent improvements were observed in the primary cognitive outcomes or in results of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. An improvement in scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was observed with NBM DBS (8.5 points [range, 4-26 points]) compared with sham stimulation (12 points [range, 8-38 points]; median difference, 5 points; 95% CI, 2.5-8.5 points; P = .03) and the preoperative baseline (13 points [range, 5-25 points]; median difference, 2 points; 95% CI, −8 to 5.5 points; P = .69).
Conclusions and Relevance Low-frequency NBM DBS was safely conducted in patients with Parkinson disease dementia; however, no improvements were observed in the primary cognitive outcomes. Further studies may be warranted to explore its potential to improve troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms.
JAMA Neurology 2017
NEWS FROM THE WORLD- Prediction of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome using the 2016 MAGNIMS and 2010 McDonald criteria: a retrospective study
In 2016, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS) network proposed modifications to the MRI criteria to define dissemination in space (DIS) and time (DIT) for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Changes to the DIS definition included removal of the distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions, increasing the number of lesions needed to define periventricular involvement to three, combining cortical and juxtacortical lesions, and inclusion of optic nerve evaluation. For DIT, removal of the distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions was suggested. We compared the performance of the 2010 McDonald and 2016 MAGNIMS criteria for multiple sclerosis diagnosis in a large multicentre cohort of patients with CIS to provide evidence to guide revisions of multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria.
Brain and spinal cord MRI and optic nerve assessments from patients with typical CIS suggestive of multiple sclerosis done less than 3 months from clinical onset in eight European multiple sclerosis centres were included in this retrospective study. Eligible patients were 16–60 years, and had a first CIS suggestive of CNS demyelination and typical of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, a complete neurological examination, a baseline brain and spinal cord MRI scan obtained less than 3 months from clinical onset, and a follow-up brain scan obtained less than 12 months from CIS onset. We recorded occurrence of a second clinical attack (clinically definite multiple sclerosis) at months 36 and 60. We evaluated MRI criteria performance for DIS, DIT, and DIS plus DIT with a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Between June 16, 1995, and Jan 27, 2017, 571 patients with CIS were screened, of whom 368 met all study inclusion criteria. At the last evaluation (median 50·0 months [IQR 27·0–78·4]), 189 (51%) of 368 patients developed clinically definite multiple sclerosis. At 36 months, the two DIS criteria showed high sensitivity (2010 McDonald 0·91 [95% CI 0·85–0·94] and 2016 MAGNIMS 0·93 [0·88–0·96]), similar specificity (0·33 [0·25–0·42] and 0·32 [0·24–0·41]), and similar area under the curve values (AUC; 0·62 [0·57–0·67] and 0·63 [0·58–0·67]). Performance was not affected by inclusion of symptomatic lesions (sensitivity 0·92 [0·87–0·96], specificity 0·31 [0·23–0·40], AUC 0·62 [0·57–0·66]) or cortical lesions (sensitivity 0·92 [0·87–0·95], specificity 0·32 [0·24–0·41], AUC 0·62 [0·57–0·67]). Requirement of three periventricular lesions resulted in slightly lower sensitivity (0·85 [0·78–0·90], slightly higher specificity (0·40 [0·32–0·50], and similar AUC (0·63 [0·57–0·68]). Inclusion of optic nerve evaluation resulted in similar sensitivity (0·92 [0·87–0·96]), and slightly lower specificity (0·26 [0·18–0·34]) and AUC (0·59 [0·55–0·64]). AUC values were also similar for DIT (2010 McDonald 0·61 [0·55–0·67] and 2016 MAGNIMS 0·61 [0·55–0·66]) and DIS plus DIT (0·62 [0·56–0·67] and 0·64 [0·58–0·69]).
The 2016 MAGNIMS criteria showed similar accuracy to the 2010 McDonald criteria in predicting the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. Inclusion of symptomatic lesions is expected to simplify the clinical use of MRI criteria without reducing accuracy, and our findings suggest that needing three lesions to define periventricular involvement might slightly increase specificity, suggesting that these two factors could be considered during further revisions of multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria.
Lancet Neurology 2017