sabato 25 febbraio 2017
C9orf72 and RAB7L1 regulate vesicle trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia
A non-coding hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the gene is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD), however, the precise molecular mechanism by which the hexanucleotide repeat expansion directs C9ALS/FTD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report a novel disease mechanism arising due to the interaction of C9ORF72 with the RAB7L1 GTPase to regulate vesicle trafficking. Endogenous interaction between C9ORF72 and RAB7L1 was confirmed in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The hexanucleotide repeat expansion led to haploinsufficiency resulting in severely defective intracellular and extracellular vesicle trafficking and a dysfunctional trans-Golgi network phenotype in patient-derived fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons. Genetic ablation of or in SH-SY5Y cells recapitulated the findings in C9ALS/FTD fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cell neurons. When C9ORF72 was overexpressed or antisense oligonucleotides were targeted to the hexanucleotide repeat expansion to upregulate normal variant 1 transcript levels, the defective vesicle trafficking and dysfunctional trans-Golgi network phenotypes were reversed, suggesting that both loss- and gain-of-function mechanisms play a role in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism for C9ALS/FTD pathogenesis highlighting the molecular regulation of intracellular and extracellular vesicle trafficking as an important pathway in C9ALS/FTD pathogenesis.
Importance Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) may be effective in aggressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) that fail to respond to standard therapies.
Objective To evaluate the long-term outcomes in patients who underwent AHSCT for the treatment of MS in a large multicenter cohort.
Design, Setting, and Participants Data were obtained in a multicenter, observational, retrospective cohort study. Eligibility criteria were receipt of AHSCT for the treatment of MS between January 1995 and December 2006 and the availability of a prespecified minimum data set comprising the disease subtype at baseline; the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score at baseline; information on the administered conditioning regimen and graft manipulation; and at least 1 follow-up visit or report after transplant. The last patient visit was on July 1, 2012. To avoid bias, all eligible patients were included in the analysis regardless of their duration of follow-up. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2014 to April 27, 2015.
Exposures Demographic, disease-related, and treatment-related exposures were considered variables of interest, including age, disease subtype, baseline EDSS score, number of previous disease-modifying treatments, and intensity of the conditioning regimen.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcomes were MS progression-free survival and overall survival. The probabilities of progression-free survival and overall survival were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis models.
Results Valid data were obtained from 25 centers in 13 countries for 281 evaluable patients, with median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-16 years). Seventy-eight percent (218 of 281) of patients had progressive forms of MS. The median EDSS score before mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells was 6.5 (range, 1.5-9). Eight deaths (2.8%; 95% CI, 1.0%-4.9%) were reported within 100 days of transplant and were considered transplant-related mortality. The 5-year probability of progression-free survival as assessed by the EDSS score was 46% (95% CI, 42%-54%), and overall survival was 93% (95% CI, 89%-96%) at 5 years. Factors associated with neurological progression after transplant were older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05), progressive vs relapsing form of MS (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.27-4.28), and more than 2 previous disease-modifying therapies (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.47). Higher baseline EDSS score was associated with worse overall survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.40-2.95).
Conclusions and Relevance In this observational study of patients with MS treated with AHSCT, almost half of them remained free from neurological progression for 5 years after transplant. Younger age, relapsing form of MS, fewer prior immunotherapies, and lower baseline EDSS score were factors associated with better outcomes. The results support the rationale for further randomized clinical trials of AHSCT for the treatment of MS
JAMA Neurology 2017
Association of In Vivo [18F]AV-1451 Tau PET Imaging Results With Cortical Atrophy and Symptoms in Typical and Atypical Alzheimer Disease
Importance Previous postmortem studies have long demonstrated that neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are closely associated with Alzheimer disease clinical phenotype and neurodegeneration pattern. Validating these associations in vivo will lead to new diagnostic tools for Alzheimer disease and better understanding of its neurobiology.
Objective To examine whether topographical distribution and severity of hyperphosphorylated tau pathologic findings measured by fluorine 18–labeled AV-1451 ([18F]AV-1451) positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging are linked with clinical phenotype and cortical atrophy in patients with Alzheimer disease.
Design, Setting, and Participants This observational case series, conducted from July 1, 2012, to July 30, 2015, in an outpatient referral center for patients with neurodegenerative diseases, included 6 patients: 3 with typical amnesic Alzheimer disease and 3 with atypical variants (posterior cortical atrophy, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, and corticobasal syndrome). Patients underwent [18F]AV-1451 PET imaging to measure tau burden, carbon 11–labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB) PET imaging to measure amyloid burden, and structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical thickness. Seventy-seven age-matched controls with normal cognitive function also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging but not tau or amyloid PET imaging.
Main Outcomes and Measures Tau burden, amyloid burden, and cortical thickness.
Results In all 6 patients (3 women and 3 men; mean age 61.8 years), the underlying clinical phenotype was associated with the regional distribution of the [18F]AV-1451 signal. Furthermore, within 68 cortical regions of interest measured from each patient, the magnitude of cortical atrophy was strongly correlated with the magnitude of [18F]AV-1451 binding (3 patients with amnesic Alzheimer disease, r = –0.82; P < .001; r = –0.70; P < .001; r = –0.58; P < .001; and 3 patients with nonamnesic Alzheimer disease, r = –0.51; P < .001; r = –0.63; P < .001; r = –0.70; P < .001), but not of [11C]PiB binding.
Conclusions and Relevance These findings provide further in vivo evidence that distribution of the [18F]AV-1451 signal as seen on results of PET imaging is a valid marker of clinical symptoms and neurodegeneration. By localizing and quantifying hyperphosphorylated tau in vivo, results of tau PET imaging will likely serve as a key biomarker that links a specific type of molecular Alzheimer disease neuropathologic condition with clinically significant neurodegeneration, which will likely catalyze additional efforts to develop disease-modifying therapeutics.
JAMA Neurology 2017
Timed Light Therapy for Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness Associated With Parkinson Disease A Randomized Clinical Trial
Importance Impaired sleep and alertness are some of the most common nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD) and currently have only limited treatment options. Light therapy (LT), a widely available treatment modality in sleep medicine, has not been systematically studied in the PD population.
Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of LT on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with PD.
Design, Settings, and Participants This randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical intervention study was set in PD centers at Northwestern University and Rush University. Participants were 31 patients with PD receiving stable dopaminergic therapy with coexistent EDS, as assessed by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 12 or greater, and without cognitive impairment or primary sleep disorder. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive bright LT or dim-red LT (controlled condition) twice daily in 1-hour intervals for 14 days. This trial was conducted between March 1, 2007, and October 31, 2012. Data analysis of the intention-to-treat population was conducted from November 1, 2012, through April 30, 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome measure was the change in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score comparing the bright LT with the dim-red LT. Secondary outcome measures included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, the Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale score, the visual analog scale score for daytime sleepiness, and sleep log–derived and actigraphy-derived metrics.
Results Among the 31 patients (13 males and 18 females; mean [SD] disease duration, 5.9 [3.6] years), bright LT resulted in significant improvements in EDS, as assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (mean [SD], 15.81 [3.10] at baseline vs 11.19 [3.31] after the intervention). Both bright LT and dim-red LT were associated with improvements in sleep quality as captured by mean (SD) scores on the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (7.88 [4.11] at baseline vs 6.25 [4.27] after bright LT, and 8.87 [2.83] at baseline vs 7.33 [3.52] after dim-red LT) and the Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale (97.24 [22.49] at baseline vs 106.98 [19.37] after bright LT, and 95.11 [19.86] at baseline vs 99.28 [16.94] after dim-red LT). Bright LT improved several self-reported mean (SD) sleep metrics, including sleep fragmentation (number of overnight awakenings, 1.51 [1.03] at baseline vs 0.92 [0.97] after the intervention), sleep quality (sleep diary score, 3.03 [1.01] at baseline vs 3.53 [0.91] after the intervention), and ease of falling asleep (sleep diary score, 2.32 [0.89] at baseline vs 1.83 [0.88] after the intervention). Light therapy was associated with increased daily physical activity as assessed by actigraphy (average activity [SD] counts, 165.01 [66.87] at baseline vs 194.59 [87.81] after the intervention).
Conclusions and Relevance Light therapy was well tolerated and may be a feasible intervention for improving the sleep-wake cycles in patients with PD. Further studies are required to determine optimal parameters of LT for PD.
JAMA Neurology 2017
Efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus aspirin in acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack of atherosclerotic origin: a subgroup analysis of SOCRATES, a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial
Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy for patients with coronary atherosclerotic disease and might be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia of atherosclerotic origin. Our aim was to test for a treatment-by-ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis interaction in a subgroup analysis of patients in the Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated with Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes (SOCRATES) trial.
SOCRATES was a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial of ticagrelor versus aspirin in patients aged 40 years or older with a non-cardioembolic, non-severe acute ischaemic stroke, or high-risk transient ischaemic attack from 674 hospitals in 33 countries. We randomly allocated patients (1:1) to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2–90, given orally) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2–90, given orally) within 24 h of symptom onset. Investigators classified all patients into atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic groups for the prespecified, exploratory analysis reported in this study. The primary endpoint was the time to occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. The SOCRATES trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01994720.
Between Jan 7, 2014, and Oct 29, 2015, we randomly allocated 13 199 patients (6589 [50%] to ticagrelor and 6610 [50%] to aspirin). Potentially symptomatic ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis was reported in 3081 (23%) of 13 199 patients. We found a treatment-by-atherosclerotic stenosis interaction (p=0·017). 103 (6·7%) of 1542 patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the ticagrelor group and 147 (9·6%) of 1539 patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the aspirin group had an occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days (hazard ratio 0·68 [95% CI 0·53–0·88]; p=0·003). In 10 118 patients with no ipsilateral stenosis, 339 (6·7%) of 5047 patients in the ticagrelor group had an occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days compared with 350 (6·9%) of 5071 in the aspirin group (0·97 [0·84–1·13]; p=0·72). There were no significant differences in the proportion of life-threatening bleeding or major or minor bleeding events in patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the ticagrelor group compared with the aspirin group.
In this prespecified exploratory analysis, ticagrelor was superior to aspirin at preventing stroke, myocardial infarction, or death at 90 days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack when associated with ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis. An understanding of stroke mechanisms and causes is important to deliver safe and efficacious treatments for early stroke prevention.
Lancet Neurology 2017
sabato 18 febbraio 2017
Incident stroke has long been recognized to cause dementia shortly after the event. Patients who survive stroke without early-onset poststroke dementia (PSD) are at a high risk of developing dementia months to years after the initial stroke incident, which has generated enthusiasm for exploring treatments to prevent delayed-onset PSD in survivors of stroke. However, results from clinical trials completed in the past 10–15 years have been disappointing. In light of these results, the present Review revisits the mechanisms of both early-onset and delayed-onset PSD and proposes preventive strategies and directions for future clinical trials. Early-onset PSD results from a complex interplay between stroke lesion features and brain resilience, whereas delayed-onset PSD is associated mainly with the presence of severe sporadic small vessel disease (SVD), and to a lesser extent with Alzheimer disease pathology or recurrent stroke. As well as preventing stroke and delivering acute stroke treatments to reduce initial brain damage, measures to increase brain resilience could also reduce the risk of developing dementia if an incident stroke occurs. Future efforts to prevent delayed-onset PSD should focus on the study of sporadic SVD and on evaluating whether other strategies, in addition to conventional secondary stroke prevention, are effective in dementia prevention in this high-risk group.
Nature Reviews Neurology 2017
Deficits in social cognition are the defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social cognition requires the integration of several neural circuits in a time-sensitive fashion, so impairments in social interactions could arise as a result of alterations in network connectivity. Electroencephalography (EEG) has revealed abnormalities in event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by auditory and visual sensory stimuli in humans with ASD, indicating disruption of neural connectivity. Similar abnormalities in sensory-evoked ERPs have been observed in animal models of ASD, suggesting that ERPs have the potential to provide a translational biomarker of the disorder. People with ASD also have abnormal ERPs in response to auditory and visual social stimuli, demonstrating functional disruption of the social circuit. To assess the integrity of the social circuit and characterize biomarkers of circuit dysfunction, novel EEG paradigms that use social stimuli to induce ERPs should be developed for use in animal models. The identification of a socially-relevant ERP that is consistent in animal models and humans would facilitate the development of pharmacological treatment strategies for the social impairments in ASD and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Nature Reviews Neurology 2017
Association of Collateral Blood Vessels Detected by Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Neurological Outcome After Ischemic Stroke
Importance Robust collateral blood vessels have been associated with better neurologic outcome following acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The most commonly used methods for identifying collaterals are contrast-based angiographic imaging techniques, which are not possible in all patients after AIS.
Objective To assess the association between the presence of collateral vessels identified using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, a technique that does not require exogenous administration of contrast, and neurologic outcome in patients after AIS.
Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective cohort study examined 38 patients after AIS admitted to a tertiary academic medical center between 2012 and 2014 who underwent MRI with ASL.
Main Outcomes and Measures According to a prespecified hypothesis, ASL images were graded for the presence of collaterals by 2 neuroradiologists. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge and other composite data were abstracted from the medical record by a neurologist blinded to radiologic data.
Results Of the 38 patients, 19 (50.0%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 61 (20) years. In 25 of 38 patients (65.8%), collaterals were detected using ASL, which were significantly associated with both a good outcome (mRS score of 0-2 at discharge; P = .02) and a 1-point decrease in mRS score at discharge (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.7-23.4; P = .005). In a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, history of atrial fibrillation, premorbid mRS score, and stroke parent artery status, there was a strong association between the presence of ASL collaterals and a 1-point decrease in the mRS score at discharge (odds ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.2-22.1; P = .03).
Conclusions and Relevance Following AIS, the presence of ASL collaterals is strongly associated with better neurological outcome at hospital discharge. This novel association between ASL collaterals and improved neurologic outcome may help guide prognosis and management, particularly in patients who are unable to undergo contrast-based radiological studies.
Importance Patients carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion leading to frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have highly variable ages at onset of disease, suggesting the presence of modifying factors.
Objective To provide clinical-based evidence for disease anticipation in families carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion by analyzing age at onset, disease duration, and age at death in successive generations.
Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study was performed from June 16, 2000, to June 1, 2016, in 36 extended Belgian families in which a C9orf72repeat expansion was segregating. The generational effect on age at onset, disease duration, and age at death was estimated using a mixed effects Cox proportional hazards regression model, including random-effects terms for within-family correlation and kinship. Time until disease onset or last examination, time from disease onset until death or last examination, or age at death was collected for for 244 individuals (132 proven or obligate C9orf72carriers), of whom 147 were clinically affected (89 proven or obligate C9orf72carriers).
Main Outcomes and Measures Generational effect on age at onset, disease duration, and age at death.
Results Among the 111 individuals with age at onset available (66 men and 45 women; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [9.1] years), the mean (SD) age at onset per generation (from earliest-born to latest-born generation) was 62.5 (8.3), 57.1 (8.2), 54.6 (10.2), and 49.3 (7.5) years. Censored regression analysis on all affected and unaffected at-risk relatives confirmed a decrease in age at onset in successive generations (P < .001). No generational effect was observed for disease duration or age at death.
Conclusions and Relevance The clinical data provide supportive evidence for the occurrence of disease anticipation in families carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion by means of a decrease in age at onset across successive generations. This finding may help clinicians decide from which age onward it may be relevant to clinically follow presymptomatic individuals who carry a C9orf72repeat expansion.
JAMA Neurology 2017
Distinct brain imaging characteristics of autoantibody-mediated CNS conditions and multiple sclerosis
Brain imaging characteristics of MOG antibody disease are largely unknown and it is unclear whether they differ from those of multiple sclerosis and AQP4 antibody disease. The aim of this study was to identify brain imaging discriminators between those three inflammatory central nervous system diseases in adults and children to support diagnostic decisions, drive antibody testing and generate disease mechanism hypotheses. Clinical brain scans of 83 patients with brain lesions (67 in the training and 16 in the validation cohort, 65 adults and 18 children) with MOG antibody (26), AQP4 antibody disease (26) and multiple sclerosis (31) recruited from Oxford neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis clinical services were retrospectively and anonymously scored on a set of 29 predefined magnetic resonance imaging features by two independent raters. Principal component analysis was used to perform an overview of patients without knowledge of the diagnosis. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to build models separating diagnostic groups and identify best classifiers, which were then tested on an independent cohort set. Adults and children with MOG antibody disease frequently had fluffy brainstem lesions, often located in pons and/or adjacent to fourth ventricle. Children across all conditions showed more frequent bilateral, large, brainstem and deep grey matter lesions. MOG antibody disease spontaneously separated from multiple sclerosis but overlapped with AQP4 antibody disease. Multiple sclerosis was discriminated from MOG antibody disease and from AQP4 antibody disease with high predictive values, while MOG antibody disease could not be accurately discriminated from AQP4 antibody disease. Best classifiers between MOG antibody disease and multiple sclerosis were similar in adults and children, and included ovoid lesions adjacent to the body of lateral ventricles, Dawson’s fingers, T hypointense lesions (multiple sclerosis), fluffy lesions and three lesions or less (MOG antibody). In the validation cohort patients with antibody-mediated conditions were differentiated from multiple sclerosis with high accuracy. Both antibody-mediated conditions can be clearly separated from multiple sclerosis on conventional brain imaging, both in adults and children. The overlap between MOG antibody oligodendrocytopathy and AQP4 antibody astrocytopathy suggests that the primary immune target is not the main substrate for brain lesion characteristics. This is also supported by the clear distinction between multiple sclerosis and MOG antibody disease both considered primary demyelinating conditions. We identify discriminatory features, which may be useful in classifying atypical multiple sclerosis, seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and characterizing cohorts for antibody discovery.
Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal phase 2a trial
Current standard of care for trigeminal neuralgia is treatment with the sodium channel blockers carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which although effective are associated with poor tolerability and the need for titration. BIIB074, a Nav1.7-selective, state-dependent sodium-channel blocker, can be administered at therapeutic doses without titration, and has shown good tolerability in healthy individuals in phase 1 studies. We therefore assessed the safety and efficacy of BIIB074 in patients with trigeminal neuralgia in a phase 2a study.
We did a double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal phase 2a trial in 25 secondary care centres in Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK. After a 7-day run-in phase, eligible patients aged 18–80 years with confirmed trigeminal neuralgia received open-label, BIIB074 150 mg three times per day, orally, for 21 days. Patients who met at least one response criteria were then randomly assigned (1:1) to BIIB074 or placebo for up to 28 days in a double-blind phase. We used an interactive web response system to assign patients with a computer-generated schedule, with stratification (presence or absence of existing pain medication). Patients, clinicians, and assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the difference between groups in the number of patients classified as treatment failure during the double blind phase assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all patients who received one or more doses of BIIB074. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01540630) and EudraCT (2010-023963-16).
The first patient was enrolled on April 23, 2012, and the last patient completed the study on February 26, 2014. We enrolled 67 patients into the open-label phase; 44 completed open-label treatment, and 29 were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment (15 to BIIB074 and 14 to placebo). During the double-blind phase, five (33%) patients assigned to BIIB074 versus nine (64%) assigned to placebo were classified as treatment failures (p=0·0974). BIIB074 was well tolerated, with similar adverse events in the double-blind phase to placebo. Headache was the most common adverse event with BIIB074 in the open-label phase (in 13 [19%] of 67 patients), followed by dizziness (in six [9%] patients). In the double-blind phase, headache, pyrexia, nasopharyngitis, sleep disorder, and tremor were the most frequent adverse events in patients assigned to BIIB074 (in one [7%] of 15 patients for each event), and headache, dizziness, diarrhoea, and vomiting were the most frequent adverse events in patients assigned to placebo (in one [7%] of 14 patients for each event). No severe or serious adverse events were reported in the BIIB074 group during the double-blind phase. One patient assigned to placebo reported intestinal adhesions with obstruction as a severe and serious adverse event, which was considered as unrelated to study medication.
The primary endpoint of treatment failure was not significantly lower in the BIIB074 group than in the placebo group. However, our findings provide a basis for continued investigation of BIIB074 in patients with trigeminal neuralgia in future clinical trials.
Lancet Neurology 2017
Lancet Neurology 2017