sabato 25 giugno 2016

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome — features, mechanisms and management

Many physicians are unaware of the many phenotypes associated with the fragile X premutation, an expansion in the 5′ untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene that consists of 55–200 CGG repeats. The most severe of these phenotypes is fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), which occurs in the majority of ageing male premutation carriers but in fewer than 20% of ageing women with the premutation. The prevalence of the premutation is 1 in 150–300 females, and 1 in 400–850 males, so physicians are likely to see people affected by FXTAS. Fragile X DNA testing is broadly available in the Western world. The clinical phenotype of FXTAS at presentation can vary and includes intention tremor, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathic pain, memory and/or executive function deficits, parkinsonian features, and psychological disorders, such as depression, anxiety and/or apathy. FXTAS causes brain atrophy and white matter disease, usually in the middle cerebellar peduncles, the periventricular area, and the splenium and/or genu of the corpus callosum. Here, we review the complexities involved in the clinical management of FXTAS and consider how targeted treatment for these clinical features of FXTAS will result from advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this neurodegenerative disorder. Such targeted approaches should also be more broadly applicable to earlier forms of clinical involvement among premutation carriers.

Nature Reviews Neurology 2016

The mTOR signalling cascade: paving new roads to cure neurological disease

Defining the multiple roles of the mechanistic (formerly 'mammalian') target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in neurological diseases has been an exciting and rapidly evolving story of bench-to-bedside translational research that has spanned gene mutation discovery, functional experimental validation of mutations, pharmacological pathway manipulation, and clinical trials. Alterations in the dual contributions of mTOR — regulation of cell growth and proliferation, as well as autophagy and cell death — have been found in developmental brain malformations, epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability, hypoxic–ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries, brain tumours, and neurodegenerative disorders. mTOR integrates a variety of cues, such as growth factor levels, oxygen levels, and nutrient and energy availability, to regulate protein synthesis and cell growth. In line with the positioning of mTOR as a pivotal cell signalling node, altered mTOR activation has been associated with a group of phenotypically diverse neurological disorders. To understand how altered mTOR signalling leads to such divergent phenotypes, we need insight into the differential effects of enhanced or diminished mTOR activation, the developmental context of these changes, and the cell type affected by altered signalling. A particularly exciting feature of the tale of mTOR discovery is that pharmacological mTOR inhibitors have shown clinical benefits in some neurological disorders, such as tuberous sclerosis complex, and are being considered for clinical trials in epilepsy, autism, dementia, traumatic brain injury, and stroke.

Nature Revieews Neurology 2016

Atomoxetine restores the response inhibition network in Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson’s disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity. Here we tested the hypotheses that atomoxetine can restore functional brain networks for response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease, and that both structural and functional connectivity determine the behavioural effect. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic Parkinson’s disease underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a stop-signal task, while on their usual dopaminergic therapy. Patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo, orally. This regimen anticipates that noradrenergic therapies for behavioural symptoms would be adjunctive to, not a replacement for, dopaminergic therapy. Twenty matched control participants provided normative data. Arterial spin labelling identified no significant changes in regional perfusion. We assessed functional interactions between key frontal and subcortical brain areas for response inhibition, by comparing 20 dynamic causal models of the response inhibition network, inverted to the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared using random effects model selection. We found that the normal interaction between pre-supplementary motor cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus was absent in Parkinson’s disease patients on placebo (despite dopaminergic therapy), but this connection was restored by atomoxetine. The behavioural change in response inhibition (improvement indicated by reduced stop-signal reaction time) following atomoxetine correlated with structural connectivity as measured by the fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the inferior frontal gyrus. Using multiple regression models, we examined the factors that influenced the individual differences in the response to atomoxetine: the reduction in stop-signal reaction time correlated with structural connectivity and baseline performance, while disease severity and drug plasma level predicted the change in fronto-striatal effective connectivity following atomoxetine. These results suggest that (i) atomoxetine increases sensitivity of the inferior frontal gyrus to afferent inputs from the pre-supplementary motor cortex; (ii) atomoxetine can enhance downstream modulation of frontal-subcortical connections for response inhibition; and (iii) the behavioural consequences of treatment are dependent on fronto-striatal structural connections. The individual differences in behavioural responses to atomoxetine highlight the need for patient stratification in future clinical trials of noradrenergic therapies for Parkinson’s disease.

Brain 2016

Time Trends in the Incidence of Parkinson Disease

Importance  Changes over time in the incidence of parkinsonism and Parkinson disease (PD) remain uncertain.
Objective  To investigate secular trends (period effects) and birth cohort trends in the incidence of parkinsonism and PD over 30 years in a geographically defined American population.
Design, Setting, and Participants  We used the medical records–linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify incidence cases of PD and other types of parkinsonism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 to 2005. All cases were classified by a movement disorder specialist using defined criteria through the review of the complete medical records within the system. The analyses for this study were conducted between May 2015 and January 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Incidence rates of parkinsonism and PD over 30 years. We tested for secular trends (period effects) using negative binomial regression models and for birth cohort effects using age–period-cohort models.
Results  Of 906 patients with parkinsonism, 501 were men, and the median age at onset was 74 years (interquartile range, 66-81 years). Of the 464 patients with PD, 275 were men, and the median age at onset was 73 years (interquartile range, 64-80 years). The overall incidence rates increased significantly over 30 years in men for both parkinsonism (relative risk [RR], 1.17 per decade; 95% CI, 1.03-1.33) and PD (RR, 1.24 per decade; 95% CI, 1.08-1.43). These trends were driven primarily by the older age groups. In particular, for men 70 years or older, incidence rates increased for both parkinsonism (RR, 1.24 per decade; 95% CI, 1.07-1.44) and PD (RR, 1.35 per decade; 95% CI, 1.10-1.65). The secular trends were not significant for women overall or in age strata. We observed an increased risk for both men and women born in the 1920 cohort (1915-1924). However, this birth cohort effect was significant only for PD and only in men.
Conclusions and Revelance  Our study suggests that the incidence of parkinsonism and PD may have increased between 1976 and 2005, particularly in men 70 years and older. These trends may be associated with the dramatic changes in smoking behavior that took place in the second half of the 20th century or with other lifestyle or environmental changes. However, the trends could be spurious and need to be confirmed in other populations.

JAMA Neurology 2016

Association Between Hypodensities Detected by Computed Tomography and Hematoma Expansion in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Importance  Hematoma expansion is a potentially modifiable predictor of poor outcome following an acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The ability to identify patients with ICH who are likeliest to experience hematoma expansion and therefore likeliest to benefit from expansion-targeted treatments remains an unmet need. Hypodensities within an ICH detected by noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) have been suggested as a predictor of hematoma expansion.
Objective  To determine whether hypodense regions, irrespective of their specific patterns, are associated with hematoma expansion in patients with ICH.
Design, Setting, and Participants  We analyzed a large cohort of 784 patients with ICH (the development cohort; 55.6% female), examined NCCT findings for any hypodensity, and replicated our findings on a different cohort of patients (the replication cohort; 52.7% female). Baseline and follow-up NCCT data from consecutive patients with ICH presenting to a tertiary care hospital between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Data analyses were performed between December 2015 and January 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Hypodensities were analyzed by 2 independent blinded raters. The association between hypodensities and hematoma expansion (>6 cm3 or 33% of baseline volume) was determined by multivariable logistic regression after controlling for other variables associated with hematoma expansion in univariate analyses with P ≤ .10.
Results  A total of 1029 patients were included in the analysis. In the development and replication cohorts, 222 of 784 patients (28.3%) and 99 of 245 patients (40.4%; 321 of 1029 patients [31.2%]), respectively, had NCCT scans that demonstrated hypodensities at baseline (κ = 0.87 for interrater reliability). In univariate analyses, hypodensities were associated with hematoma expansion (86 of 163 patients with hematoma expansion had hypodensities [52.8%], whereas 136 of 621 patients without hematoma expansion had hypodensities [21.9%]; P < .001). The association between hypodensities and hematoma expansion remained significant (odds ratio, 3.42 [95% CI, 2.21-5.31]; P < .001) in a multivariable model; other independent predictors of hematoma expansion were a CT angiography spot sign, a shorter time to CT, warfarin use, and older age. The independent predictive value of hypodensities was again demonstrated in the replication cohort (odds ratio, 4.37 [95% CI, 2.05-9.62]; P < .001).
Conclusion and Relevance  Hypodensities within an acute ICH detected on an NCCT scan may predict hematoma expansion, independent of other clinical and imaging predictors. This novel marker may help clarify the mechanism of hematoma expansion and serve as a useful addition to clinical algorithms for determining the risk of and treatment stratification for hematoma expansion.

JAMA Neurology 2016

DMD genotypes and loss of ambulation in the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study

Objective: To correlate time to loss of ambulation (LoA) and different truncating DMD gene mutations in a large, prospective natural history study of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with particular attention to mutations amenable to emerging molecular treatments.
Methods: We analyzed data from the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study for participants with DMD single- or multi-exon deletions or duplications with defined exon boundaries (n = 186), or small mutations identified by sequencing (n = 26, including 16 nonsense point mutations). We performed a time-to-event analysis of LoA, a strong indicator of overall disease severity, adjusting for glucocorticoid treatment and genetic modifiers.
Results: Participants with deletions amenable to skipping of exon 44 had later LoA (median 14.8 years, hazard ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.69, p = 0.004). Age at LoA did not differ significantly in participants with deletions amenable to exon 45, 51, and 53 skipping, duplications, and small rearrangements. Nonsense mutation DMD also showed a typical median age at LoA (11.1 years), with a few outliers (ambulatory around or after 16 years of age) carrying stop codons within in-frame exons, more often situated in the rod domain.
Conclusions: As exon 44 skipping–amenable DMD has a later LoA, mutation-specific randomization and selection of placebo groups are essential for the success of clinical trials.

Neurology 2016

Huntington disease reduced penetrance alleles occur at high frequency in the general population

Objective: To directly estimate the frequency and penetrance of CAG repeat alleles associated with Huntington disease (HD) in the general population.
Methods: CAG repeat length was evaluated in 7,315 individuals from 3 population-based cohorts from British Columbia, the United States, and Scotland. The frequency of ≥36 CAG alleles was assessed out of a total of 14,630 alleles. The general population frequency of reduced penetrance alleles (36–39 CAG) was compared to the prevalence of patients with HD with genetically confirmed 36–39 CAG from a multisource clinical ascertainment in British Columbia, Canada. The penetrance of 36–38 CAG repeat alleles for HD was estimated for individuals ≥65 years of age and compared against previously reported clinical penetrance estimates.
Results: A total of 18 of 7,315 individuals had ≥36 CAG, revealing that approximately 1 in 400 individuals from the general population have an expanded CAG repeat associated with HD (0.246%). Individuals with CAG 36–37 genotypes are the most common (36, 0.096%; 37, 0.082%; 38, 0.027%; 39, 0.000%; ≥40, 0.041%). General population CAG 36–38 penetrance rates are lower than penetrance rates extrapolated from clinical cohorts.
Conclusion: HD alleles with a CAG repeat length of 36–38 occur at high frequency in the general population. The infrequent diagnosis of HD at this CAG length is likely due to low penetrance. Another important contributing factor may be reduced ascertainment of HD in those of older age.

Neurology 2016

Efficacy and safety of brivaracetam for partial-onset seizures in 3 pooled clinical studies

Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for SV2A, for treatment of partial-onset (focal) seizures (POS) in adults.
Methods: Data were pooled from patients (aged 16–80 years) with POS uncontrolled by 1 to 2 antiepileptic drugs receiving BRV 50, 100, or 200 mg/d or placebo, without titration, in 3 phase III studies of BRV (NCT00490035,NCT00464269, and, funded by UCB Pharma). The studies had an 8-week baseline and a 12-week treatment period. Patients receiving concomitant levetiracetam were excluded from the efficacy pool.
Results: In the efficacy population (n = 1,160), reduction over placebo (95% confidence interval) in baseline-adjusted POS frequency/28 days was 19.5% (8.0%–29.6%) for 50 mg/d (p = 0.0015), 24.4% (16.8%–31.2%) for 100 mg/d (p < 0.00001), and 24.0% (15.3%–31.8%) for 200 mg/d (p < 0.00001). The ≥50% responder rate was 34.2% (50 mg/d, p = 0.0015), 39.5% (100 mg/d, p < 0.00001), and 37.8% (200 mg/d, p = 0.00003) vs 20.3% for placebo (p < 0.01). Across the safety population groups (n = 1,262), 90.0% to 93.9% completed the studies. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported by 68.0% BRV overall (n = 803) and 62.1% placebo (n = 459). Serious TEAEs were reported by 3.0% (BRV) and 2.8% (placebo); 3 patients receiving BRV and one patient receiving placebo died. TEAEs in ≥5% patients taking BRV (vs placebo) were somnolence (15.2% vs 8.5%), dizziness (11.2% vs 7.2%), headache (9.6% vs 10.2%), and fatigue (8.7% vs 3.7%).
Conclusions: Adjunctive BRV was effective and generally well tolerated in adults with POS.
Classification of evidence: This analysis provides Class I evidence that adjunctive BRV is effective in reducing POS frequency in adults with epilepsy and uncontrolled seizures.

Neurology 2016

Ultraearly hematoma growth in active intracerebral hemorrhage


Objective: To determine the association of ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) with the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, hematoma expansion, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
Methods: We analyzed data from 231 patients enrolled in the multicenter Predicting Haematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Haemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT study. uHG was defined as baseline ICH volume/onset-to-CT time (mL/h). The spot sign was used as marker of active hemorrhage. Outcome parameters included significant hematoma expansion (>33% or >6 mL, primary outcome), rate of hematoma expansion, early neurologic deterioration, 90-day mortality, and poor outcome.
Results: uHG was higher in spot sign patients (p < 0.001) and in patients scanned earlier (p < 0.001). Both uHG >4.7 mL/h (p = 0.002) and the CTA spot sign (p = 0.030) showed effects on rate of hematoma expansion but not its interaction (2-way analysis of variance, p = 0.477). uHG >4.7 mL/h improved the sensitivity of the spot sign in the prediction of significant hematoma expansion (73.9% vs 46.4%), early neurologic deterioration (67.6% vs 35.3%), 90-day mortality (81.6% vs 44.9%), and poor outcome (72.8% vs 29.8%), respectively. uHG was independently related to significant hematoma expansion (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.10) and clinical outcomes.
Conclusions: uHG is a useful predictor of hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcomes in patients with acute ICH. The combination of high uHG and the spot sign is associated with a higher rate of hematoma expansion, highlighting the need for very fast treatment in ICH patients.
Neurology 2016

Anti-TIF1-γ antibody and cancer-associated myositis A clinicohistopathologic study


Objective: We aimed to analyze the clinical and histopathologic features of cancer-associated myositis (CAM) in relation to anti–transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ antibody (anti-TIF1-γ-Ab), a marker of cancer association.
Methods: We retrospectively studied 349 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), including 284 patients with pretreatment biopsy samples available. For the classification of IIMs, the European Neuromuscular Center criteria were applied. Patients with CAM with (anti-TIF1-γ-Ab[+] CAM) and without anti-TIF1-γ-Ab (anti-TIF1-γ-Ab[−] CAM) were compared with patients with IIM without cancers within and beyond 3 years of myositis diagnosis.
Results: Cancer was detected in 75 patients, of whom 36 (48%) were positive for anti-TIF1-γ-Ab. In anti-TIF1-γ-Ab(+) patients with CAM, cancers were detected within 1 year of myositis diagnosis in 35 (97%) and before 1 year of myositis diagnosis in 1. All the anti-TIF1-γ-Ab(+) patients with CAM satisfied the dermatomyositis (DM) criteria, including 2 possible DM sine dermatitis cases, and were characterized histologically by the presence of perifascicular atrophy, vacuolated fibers (VFs), and dense C5b-9 deposits on capillaries (dC5b-9). In contrast, 39 anti-TIF1-γ-Ab(−) patients with CAM were classified into various subgroups, and characterized by a higher frequency of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). Notably, all 7 patients with CAM classified into the NAM subgroup were anti-TIF1-γ-Ab(−) and exhibited no dC5b-9 or VFs.
Conclusions: CAM includes clinicohistopathologically heterogeneous disease entities. Among CAM entities, anti-TIF1-γ-Ab(+) CAM has characteristically shown a close temporal association with cancer detection and the histopathologic findings of dC5b-9 and VFs, and CAM with NAM is a subset of anti-TIF1-γ-Ab(−) CAM.

Neurology 2016

sabato 18 giugno 2016

Management of Adults With Acute Migraine in the Emergency Department: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Parenteral Pharmacotherapies


To provide evidence-based treatment recommendations for adults with acute migraine who require treatment with injectable medication in an emergency department (ED). We addressed two clinically relevant questions: (1) Which injectable medications should be considered first-line treatment for adults who present to an ED with acute migraine? (2) Do parenteral corticosteroids prevent recurrence of migraine in adults discharged from an ED?


The American Headache Society convened an expert panel of authors who defined a search strategy and then performed a search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane database and clinical trial registries from inception through 2015. Identified articles were rated using the American Academy of Neurology's risk of bias tool. For each medication, the expert panel determined likelihood of efficacy. Recommendations were created accounting for efficacy, adverse events, availability of alternate therapies, and principles of medication action.


The search identified 68 unique randomized controlled trials utilizing 28 injectable medications. Of these, 19 were rated class 1 (low risk of bias), 21 were rated class 2 (higher risk of bias), and 28 were rated class 3 (highest risk of bias). Metoclopramide, prochlorperazine, and sumatriptan each had multiple class 1 studies supporting acute efficacy, as did dexamethasone for prevention of headache recurrence. All other medications had lower levels of evidence.


Intravenous metoclopramide and prochlorperazine, and subcutaneous sumatriptan should be offered to eligible adults who present to an ED with acute migraine (Should offer—Level B). Dexamethasone should be offered to these patients to prevent recurrence of headache (Should offer—Level B). Because of lack of evidence demonstrating efficacy and concern about sub-acute or long-term sequelae, injectable morphine and hydromorphone are best avoided as first-line therapy (May avoid–Level C).

Headache 2016

The spectrum of structural and functional imaging abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy


Although most temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients show marked hippocampal sclerosis (HS) upon pathological examination, 40% present with no significant cell loss but gliotic changes only. To evaluate effects of hippocampal pathology on brain structure and functional networks, we aimed at dissociating multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in patients with HS (TLE-HS) and those with gliosis only (TLE-G).


In 20 TLE-HS, 19 TLE-G, and 25 healthy controls, we carried out a novel MRI-based hippocampal subfield surface analysis that integrated volume, T2 signal intensity, and diffusion markers with seed-based hippocampal functional connectivity.


Compared to controls, TLE-HS presented with marked ipsilateral atrophy, T2 hyperintensity, and mean diffusivity increases across all subfields, whereas TLE-G presented with dentate gyrus hypertrophy, focal increases in T2 intensity and mean diffusivity. Multivariate assessment confirmed a more marked ipsilateral load of anomalies across all subfields in TLE-HS, whereas anomalies in TLE-G were restricted to the subiculum. A between-cohort dissociation was independently suggested by resting-state functional connectivity analysis, revealing marked hippocampal decoupling from anterior and posterior default mode hubs in TLE-HS, whereas TLE-G did not differ from controls. Back-projection connectivity analysis from cortical targets revealed consistently decreased network embedding across all subfields in TLE-HS, while changes in TLE-G were limited to the subiculum. Hippocampal disconnectivity strongly correlated to T2 hyperintensity and marginally to atrophy.


Multimodal MRI reveals diverging structural and functional connectivity profiles across the TLE spectrum. Pathology-specific modulations of large-scale functional brain networks lend novel evidence for a close interplay of structural and functional disruptions in focal epilepsy. 
Ann Neurol 2016

Flow Diversion for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

Importance  Brain aneurysms have traditionally been treated with surgical clipping or endovascular coiling techniques. With these modalities, many large or complex aneurysms remain difficult to treat. A new option, flow diversion, is now available to treat aneurysms.
Objective  To summarize the clinical progression of flow diversion technology, from an experimental treatment to a commonly used method to treat large or complex aneurysms.
Evidence Review  References for this topical review were identified by searches of PubMed and GoogleScholar between January 2000 and January 2016. The search terms aneurysmflow diverterstent,pipelineFREDSURPASSSILKflow diversion, and endovascular were used. Ongoing clinical trials were identified using the same search terms in the registry. Attention was focused on current indications, rates of complications, and areas of ongoing study in randomized clinical trials.
Findings  Flow diversion is a treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for brain aneurysms that redirects blood flow away from the aneurysm, thereby promoting growth of a new endothelial lining across the aneurysm opening. Cure rates with this technology are high and complication rates are low.
Conclusions and Relevance  Flow diversion is a disruptive technology that has changed the way many brain aneurysms are treated. It is currently a preferred treatment option for large or giant wide-necked proximal internal carotid artery aneurysms. Ongoing randomized studies will help to more rigorously determine the efficacy of flow diversion.

JAMA Neurology 2016

Disability-Specific Atlases of Gray Matter Loss in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

Importance  Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by progressive gray matter (GM) atrophy that strongly correlates with clinical disability. However, whether localized GM atrophy correlates with specific disabilities in patients with MS remains unknown.
Objective  To understand the association between localized GM atrophy and clinical disability in a biology-driven analysis of MS.
Design, Setting, and Participants  In this cross-sectional study, magnetic resonance images were acquired from 133 women with relapsing-remitting MS and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and volumetry. A regression analysis was used to determine whether voxelwise GM atrophy was associated with specific clinical deficits. Data were collected from June 28, 2007, to January 9, 2014.
Main Outcomes and Measures  Voxelwise correlation of GM change with clinical outcome measures (Expanded Disability Status Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scores).
Results  Among the 133 female patients (mean [SD] age, 37.4 [7.5] years), worse performance on the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite correlated with voxelwise GM volume loss in the middle cingulate cortex (P < .001) and a cluster in the precentral gyrus bilaterally (P = .004). In addition, worse performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test correlated with volume loss in the auditory and premotor cortices (P < .001), whereas worse performance on the 9-Hole Peg Test correlated with GM volume loss in Brodmann area 44 (Broca area; P = .02). Finally, voxelwise GM loss in the right paracentral lobulus correlated with bowel and bladder disability (P = .03). Thus, deficits in specific clinical test results were directly associated with localized GM loss in clinically eloquent locations.
Conclusions and Relevance  These biology-driven data indicate that specific disabilities in MS are associated with voxelwise GM loss in distinct locations. This approach may be used to develop disability-specific biomarkers for use in future clinical trials of neuroprotective treatments in MS

JAMA Neurology 2016